Performing pelvic floor exercises can benefit males and females alike and can be carried out at almost any time. These exercises are of particular benefit to people who are affected by urinary incontinence or bowel problems.
Contents of this article:
Here are some key points about Kegel exercises. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.
- Pelvic floor exercises are also known as Kegels
- Kegel exercises can be carried out while sitting down, standing up, walking and lying down
- Kegels can also be carried out during pregnancy and following childbirth
- The pelvic floor is comprised of many different muscles
- Symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction include urinary leakage and difficulty emptying the bowel
- The pelvic floor can be weakened by gynecological and prostate surgery
- The pelvic floor muscles can also be weakened by chronic sneezing caused by allergies
- Performing Kegels while urinating could lead to bladder infection
- Kegel exercises may improve sexual performance in males.
What are pelvic floor muscles?
The pelvic floor muscles are a vital set of muscles that assist both men and women maintain urinary and fecal continence, impact orgasm, provide stabilization to connecting joints, aid in pelvic, venous and lymphatic drainage and, when working in conjunction with the abdominal and back muscles, provide spinal stabilization.1,2
In addition to the aforementioned functions, the pelvic floor muscles aid in controlling abdominal pressure during movements that cause a strain - during exercise, for example.2
The pelvic floor is comprised of several different muscles:1
- Superficial transverse perineal
- External anal sphincter (EAS)
- Compressor urethera
- Uretrovaginal sphincter
- Deep transverse perineal
- Levator ani: pubococcygeus (pubovaginalis, puborectalis), iliococcygeus
- Obturator internus.
Symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction
There are a variety of symptoms associated with pelvic floor dysfunction, many of which are vague and associated with other medical conditions.
Symptoms associated with pelvic floor dysfunction include:2
- Urinary incontinence (leaking) with laughing, coughing, sneezing or exercising
- Urinary urgency or frequency
- Difficulty with bladder or bowel emptying
- Accidental flatulence
- Pelvic pain
- Painful intercourse
- Organ prolapse.
Causes of pelvic floor dysfunction
Pelvic floor dysfunction occurs when the pelvic floor muscles are weakened, stretched or too tight. Pelvic floor muscles can be weak from an early age, gradually weaken over time or be weakened by a single event.
As with many other medical conditions, there are certain situations and conditions which place a person at a higher risk for developing pelvic floor dysfunction. 2,4
Pelvic floor dysfunction can result from a variety of factors, ranging from childbirth to chronic sneezing.
Factors that can increase the risk of pelvic floor dysfunction include:
- Pregnancy and childbirth
- Overuse or underuse of the muscle groups
- Back pain
- Constipation or straining with bowel movements
- Being overweight or obese
- Heavy lifting
- Conditions such as asthma and allergies that cause chronic coughing or sneezing
- Injury to the pelvis
- Surgery such as gynecological or prostate surgery.
Elite athletes such as runners and gymnasts have an increased risk of pelvic floor dysfunction, as have older individuals as their muscles weaken over time.
On the next page, we look at how Kegel exercises can be performed by both males and females.