Fentanyl is the most potent opioid analgesic (pain reliever) and anesthetic (blocks pain during surgery) available for use in medical treatment.
A schedule II controlled substance narcotic, fentanyl is roughly 80 times more potent than morphine and 50 times more potent than heroin. Although fentanyl is considered safe and effective when used and monitored in appropriate situations, it carries a high abuse potential.
Fentanyl analogues - designer drugs nearly identical to the original - can be manufactured and mixed with or substituted for heroin. Because fentanyl and its analogues are incredibly potent, accidental overdoses with lethal outcomes are an increasingly common and deadly result of illicit use.
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Fast facts on fentanyl
Here are some key points about fentanyl. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.
- Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid that is very effective in relieving moderate-to-severe chronic pain
- It was introduced into medical practice in the 1960s as an intravenous anesthetic under the trade name of Sublimaze
- Fentanyl has less adverse cardiac effects than other opioid analgesics, making it an option for cardiac surgery patients
- Oral formulations of fentanyl contain an amount of the drug that can be fatal to a child
- The difference between a therapeutic dose and a deadly dose of fentanyl is very small
- There are many available illegal analogues and derivatives of fentanyl that are much higher potency than the prescription grade
- There has been a significant increase in the confiscation of illicit fentanyl by authorities from 2012 to 2014, raising concerns that these drug seizures may suggest an increase in overdose risk
- Life-threatening respiratory depression could occur at any dose in opioid non-tolerant individuals
- Recreational users often use fentanyl as a substitute for heroin
- The majority of fatal overdoses related to fentanyl are not from the misuse of prescription-grade fentanyl, but rather a fentanyl analogue.
What is fentanyl?
Fentanyl is a mu-opioid receptor agonist, meaning that it binds to the body's opioid receptors, increasing dopamine levels in the central nervous system. An increase in dopamine produces a state of relaxation, relieves pain, decreases the perception of suffering and promotes a feeling of well-being (euphoria).
Fentanyl is a schedule II prescription narcotic analgesic, used to manage chronic pain syndromes and pain during surgery.
A schedule II prescription narcotic analgesic, fentanyl is roughly 50-80 times more potent than morphine. It is used to manage pain during surgery as well as moderate-to-severe chronic pain syndromes in people who are already physically tolerant to opiates.
Fentanyl also depresses the respiratory centers, depresses the cough reflex and constricts the pupils. It works within minutes to relieve pain and produce sedation, unless given in one of its extended release formulations. Fentanyl has a short duration of effect of 30-90 minutes.
Fentanyl affects everyone differently. The effects caused are dependent on an individual's size, weight, overall state of health, the amount that is taken, whether the fentanyl is taken in combination with other drugs and whether the person is used to taking opioids.
Medically prescribed fentanyl is available in a variety of formulations, including lozenges, lollipops, oral and nasal sprays and injections. For continuous delivery, fentanyl can be administered through a transdermal patch that adheres to the skin. The patch works by slowly releasing fentanyl through the skin into the bloodstream over a 48-72 hour time period.
Medical use of fentanyl
Fentanyl is a schedule II controlled substance and can be legally prescribed by select health care professionals for pain relief and anesthesia.
Fentanyl can be used as an anesthetic agent for people undergoing heart surgery.
Fentanyl can be dosed orally as a lozenge, an extended-release lollipop, a spray or a dissolving strip or tablet. It is also available as a compounding powder, an injectable solution and a transdermal patch.
A fentanyl patch is intended only for patients who are already tolerant to opioid therapy of comparable strength. Because it has already been absorbed through the skin, fentanyl can continue to be effective for 13-24 hours after the patch is removed.
When prescribing fentanyl, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warn clinicians on the importance of proper patient selection, dosing and screening of candidates for the potential for abuse.
Serious adverse events including death can occur as a result of improper patient selection and drug storage or disposal. The directions for using fentanyl skin patches must be followed precisely to prevent death or other serious side effects from accidental overdose.
Examples of appropriate medical use of all forms of fentanyl include:
- Anesthesia agent for patients undergoing heart surgery or for patients with poor heart function
- Management of breakthrough cancer pain in patients who are already receiving maintenance opioid medication for their underlying persistent pain
- Pain management in patients who have persistent, moderate-to-severe chronic pain requiring continuous, around-the-clock opioids
- In patients who are already taking narcotic analgesics or who are already opioid tolerant
- Intravenously, intramuscularly, spinally or epidurally when potent analgesia and anesthesia is needed.
Illicit use of fentanyl
Abuse of fentanyl initially appeared in the 1970s and has increased in recent years. The drug can be obtained by diverting from legitimate medical supplies or it can be manufactured in illicit laboratories.
Fast facts about heroin
- Heroin is an illegal opiate drug derived from morphine
- Recent strains of heroin have been found to be laced with fentanyl.
Even discarded fentanyl patches can still contain ample amounts of the drug. Abusers remove the gel contents from discarded patches and may eat it, place it under the tongue, smoke it or even inject it.
Fentanyl analogues produced in illicit laboratories may be hundreds of times more potent than street heroin and tend to produce significantly more respiratory depression, making them even more dangerous to users than heroin.
Persons using heroin or cocaine, or in recovery for a drug use disorder, may not know that the potency of street-sold heroin and cocaine can be markedly enhanced by the addition of fentanyl. Because the potency of such drugs is not known, and the inclusion of fentanyl is not disclosed, any illicit drug use - even a reduced dose - can result in accidental overdose or death.
Fentanyl is used orally, smoked, snorted or injected. Snorting fentanyl at a dose of 0.5 mg gives similar euphoric effects to heroin at a dose of 20 mg.
Street names for fentanyl
- Drop dead
- China white
- Serial killer
- China girl
- Dance fever
- Murder 8
Commercial names for fentanyl
- Fentanyl citrate
On the next page, we look at the side effects of fentanyl and the health risks of using the drug.