Matthew A. Killingsworth and Daniel T. Gilbert used an iPhone Web app to collect 250,000 data points on people's feelings, thoughts and activities as they went about their daily lives.
The authors wrote:
- "A human mind is a wandering mind, and a wandering mind is an unhappy mind. The ability to think about what is not happening is a cognitive achievement that comes at an emotional cost."
The iPhone app gave them 22 activities to chose from, such as watching TV, doing exercise, eating or shopping. The investigators found that people on average spend 46.9% of their time wandering. In fact, even during activities, with the exception of lovemaking, people's minds wandered for at least 30% of the time. It appears that making love really focuses the mind.
Killingsworth, who is doing a PhD in psychology at Harvard, said:
- "Mind-wandering appears ubiquitous across all activities. This study shows that our mental lives are pervaded, to a remarkable degree, by the nonpresent.
Mind-wandering is an excellent predictor of people's happiness. In fact, how often our minds leave the present and where they tend to go is a better predictor of our happiness than the activities in which we are engaged."
- "Many philosophical and religious traditions teach that happiness is to be found by living in the moment, and practitioners are trained to resist mind wandering and to 'be here now. These traditions suggest that a wandering mind is an unhappy mind."
Abstract - "A Wandering Mind Is an Unhappy Mind"
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Matthew A. Killingsworth and Daniel T. Gilbert
Science 12 November 2010: Vol. 330. no. 6006, p. 932 DOI: 10.1126/science.1192439
Written by Christian Nordqvist