Broccoli has a reputation as a superfood. It is low in calories but contains a wealth of nutrients and antioxidants that support many aspects of human health.

Broccoli is a cruciferous vegetable, alongside kale, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, bok choy, cabbage, collard greens, rutabaga, and turnips.

In this article, learn more about the nutritional content of broccoli, some possible health benefits, and some tips for cooking and serving it.

Learn about the health benefits of some other popular foods here.

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Antioxidants in broccoli may help reduce the risk of cancer.

Broccoli is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Antioxidants can help prevent the development of various conditions.

The body produces molecules called free radicals during natural processes such as metabolism, and environmental stresses add to these. Free radicals, or reactive oxygen species, are toxic in large amounts. They can cause cell damage that can lead to cancer and other conditions.

The body can eliminate many of them, but dietary antioxidants can help. Learn more about antioxidants here.

The sections below discuss the specific health benefits of broccoli in more detail.

Reducing the risk of cancer

Cruciferous vegetables contain a range of antioxidants, which may help prevent the type of cell damage that leads to cancer.

One of these is sulforaphane, which is a sulfur-containing compound that gives cruciferous vegetables their bitter bite.

Some scientists have suggested that cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli may play a role in “green chemoprevention,” in which people use either the whole plant or extracts from it to help prevent cancer.

Cruciferous vegetables also contain indole-3-carbinol. Research from 2019 suggests that this compound may have powerful antitumor properties.

Cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale, turnips, cabbage, arugula, broccolini, daikon, kohlrabi, and watercress may all have similar properties.

Does diet affect cancer risk? Find out here.

Improving bone health

Calcium and collagen work together to make strong bones. Over 99% of the body’s calcium is present in the bones and teeth. The body also needs vitamin C to produce collagen. Both are present in broccoli.

Vitamin K has a role in blood coagulation, but some experts have also suggested that it may help prevent or treat osteoporosis. People with low vitamin K levels may be more likely to experience problems with bone formation. Getting enough vitamin K from the diet may help keep the bones healthy.

According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), a cup of broccoli weighing around 76 grams (g) contains 3% to 3.5% of a person’s daily need for calcium, 45–54% of their daily need for vitamin C, and 64–86% of their daily need for vitamin K, depending on their age and sex.

Learn about some natural ways to increase bone strength here.

Boosting immune health

Vitamin C is an antioxidant that provides a range of benefits.

It supports the immune system and may help prevent cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cataracts, and anemia. In supplement form, it may also help reduce the symptoms of the common cold and shorten the time a cold lasts.

Improving skin health

Vitamin C helps the body produce collagen, which is the main support system for body cells and organs, including the skin. As an antioxidant, vitamin C can also help prevent skin damage, including wrinkling due to aging.

Studies have shown that vitamin C may play a role in preventing or treating skin conditions such as shingles and skin cancer.

Get some tips on other skin-friendly foods in this article.

Aiding digestion

Dietary fiber can help promote regularity, prevent constipation, maintain a healthy digestive tract, and lower the risk of colon cancer.

In 2015, a screening trial found that people who consumed the highest levels of fiber were less likely to develop colorectal cancer than those who ate little fiber.

A 76 g cup of broccoli provides 5.4% to 7.1% of an individual’s daily requirement for fiber.

Which other foods support healthy digestion? Find out here.

Reducing inflammation

When the immune system is under attack, inflammation can occur.

Inflammation can be a sign of a passing infection, but it can also occur with chronic autoimmune conditions such as arthritis and type 1 diabetes. People with metabolic syndrome may also have high levels of inflammation.

Broccoli may have anti-inflammatory effects, according to a 2014 study. Scientists found that the antioxidant effect of sulforaphane in broccoli helped reduce inflammation markers in laboratory tests. They therefore concluded that the nutrients in broccoli could help fight inflammation.

In a 2018 study, 40 otherwise healthy people with overweight consumed 30 g of broccoli sprouts per day for 10 weeks. At the end of the study period, the participants had significantly lower levels of inflammation.

What is the anti-inflammatory diet? This article provides tips on foods to eat and avoid.

Reducing the risk of diabetes

Research from 2017 suggested that eating broccoli may help people with type 2 diabetes manage their blood sugar levels. This is due to its sulforaphane content.

Also, one 2018 review found that people who consume a high fiber diet are less likely to have type 2 diabetes than those who eat little fiber. Fiber may also help reduce blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.

Which foods are good for people with diabetes? Get some tips here.

Protecting cardiovascular health

The fiber, potassium, and antioxidants in broccoli may help prevent CVD.

A 2018 population study demonstrated that older women whose diets were rich in cruciferous vegetables had a lower risk of atherosclerosis. This is a condition affecting the arteries that can result in a heart attack or stroke. This benefit may be due to the antioxidant content of cruciferous vegetables, and particularly sulforaphane.

The American Heart Association (AHA) recommend increasing the intake of potassium while adding less sodium to food. This relaxes the blood vessels and lowers the risk of high blood pressure, which can lead to atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular problems.

A cup of broccoli provides almost 5% of a person’s daily need for potassium.

One 2017 review found that people who eat the most fiber have a lower risk of CVD and lower levels of blood lipids (fat) than those who consume little fiber.

Which foods can help prevent high blood pressure? Find out here.

The table below lists the amount of each nutrient in one cup of broccoli, weighing around 76 g, according to the USDA.

It also shows how much an adult needs of each nutrient, according to the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Needs vary according to sex and age.

NutrientAmount in 1 cup broccoli (76g)Daily adult requirement
Energy (calories)24.31,800–3,000
Carbohydrate (g)4.78 g, including 1 g of sugar130
Fiber (g)1.8225.2–33.6
Calcium (milligrams [mg])351,000–1,200
Phosphorus (mg)50.9700
Potassium (mg)2304.700
Vitamin C (mg)40.575–90
Folate (micrograms [mcg])49.4400
Vitamin A (mcg)6.08700–900
Beta-carotene (mcg)70.7No data
Lutein and zeaxanthin (mcg)566 mcgNo data
Vitamin E (mg)0.1115
Vitamin K (mcg)77.590–120

Broccoli also contains various B vitamins, zinc, copper, selenium, and a range of antioxidants.

Learn about some other antioxidant-rich foods here.

When buying broccoli, people should try to choose pieces that are tight and firm to the touch and dark green in color. Avoid pieces that are limp, turning yellow, or wilting.

Fresh, young broccoli should not taste fibrous, woody, or sulfurous. Broccoli can become woody or fibrous if a person stores it at room temperature or for a long time.

Store broccoli unwashed in loose or perforated bags in the crisper drawer of the refrigerator. People should only wash broccoli right before eating it, as wet broccoli can develop mold and become limp.

Tips for using broccoli

Here are some tips for using broccoli:

  • Sauté or steam chopped broccoli, then drizzle it with olive oil, cracked black pepper, and minced garlic.
  • Chop raw broccoli into a wrap.
  • Top a flatbread or pizza with chopped broccoli before roasting.
  • Add finely chopped broccoli to homemade pesto or pasta sauce.

Recipes

The following healthful recipes use broccoli:

Learn about the health benefits of other fruits and vegetables here.

Possible health risks

Broccoli is a good source of vitamin K, but this may interfere with some people’s use of blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin (Coumadin). People who use these drugs should not suddenly increase their intake of vitamin K-rich foods such as broccoli.

Which other foods should people avoid when taking warfarin? Find out here.

Also, some people may have an allergic reaction to the substances in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables. If a person experiences hives, swelling, or difficulty breathing after eating broccoli, they should seek medical help. If anaphylaxis develops, it can be life threatening.

Many vegetables also contain traces of pesticides, but broccoli appears on the Environmental Working Group’s 2019 list of 15 “clean” vegetables. This means that the risk of contamination is low.

Learn about 15 other healthful foods here.

Q:

What is the best way to cook broccoli for maximum nutritional content?

A:

Steaming broccoli is the best way to retain its nutritional content.

Miho Hatanaka, RDN, L.D. Answers represent the opinions of our medical experts. All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice.