It may not be possible to feel breast cancer until a tumor grows large enough to be palpable. Other possible symptoms include pain, dimpling, and an inverted nipple. Many breast lumps you can feel are not cancerous.
Many people find out that they have breast cancer after routine screening with a mammogram. However, for some people, the earliest symptom is a lump in the breast or under the arms, an inverted nipple, or other changes.
People with inflammatory breast cancer will not usually experience a lump, but there may be other symptoms.
In this article, find out what a breast lump feels like, what other symptoms can develop over time, and other causes of breast lumps.
A note about sex and gender
Sex and gender exist on spectrums. This article will use the terms “male,” “female,” or both to refer to sex assigned at birth. Click here to learn more.
According to the
A lump that indicates breast cancer is most likely to:
- be painless
- feel hard
- have irregular edges
However, a breast tumor can also feel soft, round, or tender.
Some other possible symptoms include:
- breast or nipple pain
- swelling, irritation, or color changes of the breast or nipple
- an inverted nipple
- a new mole or a change in an existing breast or nipple mole
- a sore on the breast or nipple that will not heal
- tender or enlarged lymph nodes under the arm or in the neck area
- nipple discharge
- a change in the overall size, shape, or appearance of the breast or nipple
Angiosarcoma is a type of breast cancer that
Not all types of breast cancer involve a lump.
What can a lump on the chest mean? Find out here.
Inflammatory breast cancer
Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare type of breast cancer in which cancer cells develop in lymph vessels in the breast. There is not usually a lump with this type, and the cancer may not be visible on a mammogram.
Instead, the following symptoms will affect
- changes in skin color
- swelling that can make one breast look larger than the other
- pain and itching
- ridged or pitted skin
- a feeling of heaviness, tenderness, or burning
- an inverted nipple
- swollen lymph nodes near the collarbone, under the arm, or both
The symptoms of inflammatory breast cancer will develop rapidly compared with those of other types of breast cancer.
It mostly starts before the age of
Learn more about how breast cancer affects Black women here.
Paget’s disease of the breast
This is another type of breast cancer that may not cause a lump. Some symptoms include:
- flushed, crusty, or flaking skin around the nipple
- a flat or inverted nipple
- burning or itching in the nipple
This condition can resemble eczema.
How breast lumps feel depends on their cause, location, and growth. They can vary from painful, hard, and immobile to soft, painless, and easily moveable.
Lumps are most likely to be cancerous if they do not cause pain and are hard, unevenly shaped, and immobile.
Other breast lumps can feel different:
- Fibroadenoma lumps tend to be painless, easily movable, smooth, and rounded. They may disappear on their own.
- Breast cysts are smooth but firm.
- Breast abscesses and mastitis usually cause painful, swollen lumps, and there may also be a fever and flushing around the affected skin.
Other organizations still consider self-examination worthwhile, as long as a person also has regular screenings. They suggest checking the breasts in the shower, in front of the mirror, and lying down.
How to feel for changes
Using the following steps, a person can feel for changes such as lumps, thickening, or pain:
- Using the pads of the fingers, move in a circular motion from the inside, near the nipple, outward.
- Cover the entire breast area from the cleavage line to the surrounding chest, collarbone, and armpit area.
- Do this both from side to side and up and down.
- Apply light pressure closer to the surface of the breast and nipple.
- Apply medium and firm pressure to check deeper tissue and tissue closer to the rib cage and back muscles.
- To examine the nipple, squeeze gently and check for discharge, lumps, and pain.
Carry out the same routine while lying down, allowing the breast tissue to rest evenly against the chest wall.
How to look for changes
Standing in front of a mirror, a person should look at the overall appearance of the breasts and nipples. Here are some questions to think about while doing so:
- Are they similar in size, shape, and height?
- Is one a different color than the other?
- Are there any visible skin lesions, marks, color changes, or moles?
- Are there any signs of swelling, lumpiness, pitting, or contour changes?
- Are the nipples facing outward or inward?
A person should run through this checklist twice: once with their arms at their sides and once with their arms above their head.
Breasts are rarely identical, but noticing changes can help detect a problem early. Having an idea of the usual size, shape, appearance, and feel of the breasts can help a person be aware of any changes.
How can Medicare help with screening for breast cancer? Find out here.
The National Health Service (NHS) notes that most breast lumps are not cancerous but benign.
Benign lumps may be painful and cause breast changes, but they are not usually life threatening. Some lumps may need treatment or surgery.
Benign breast lumps can result from:
- fibrocystic breast disease
- ductal or lobular hyperplasia
- cysts, abscesses, or infections
- intraductal papillomas
- fat necrosis
- mammary duct ectasia
- complex lesions or scars from past breast biopsies
Experts do not know exactly why breast cancer develops, but the following
- being aged 50 years or above
- having changes in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes or in other genes
- starting puberty before the age of 12 years and starting menopause after the age of 55 years
- having dense breasts
- having a history of breast cancer or other breast conditions
- having a family history of breast or ovarian cancer
- undergoing past treatment with radiation therapy
- not getting enough physical activity
- having overweight or obesity
- using hormone treatment for birth control or during menopause
- never being pregnant or having a first pregnancy after the age of 30 years
- never breastfeeding
- consuming a lot of alcohol
The ACS predicts that there will be
- a lump or swelling in the breast
- flushed, flaky, or dimpled skin
- skin irritation in the breast
- nipple discharge
- an inverted nipple
- nipple pain
- skin color changes
Males often receive a diagnosis at a later stage. This may be because they are less aware of the risks and less likely to seek and undergo screening.
A person should contact a doctor if they experience any symptoms that may indicate breast cancer. Most lumps are not cancerous, but a doctor can help rule this out.
Screening can help detect changes before a lump becomes noticeable. At this stage, breast cancer is easier to treat.
People with a higher risk, such as those with a family history of breast cancer, may need more regular screening.
It is worth noting that different authorities, such as the
A lump in the breast may be a symptom of cancer, especially if it is painless and hard and has an irregular edge.
However, there are many different symptoms of breast cancer, and inflammatory breast cancer does not usually produce a lump.
Being aware of breast changes, having regular screenings, and seeking medical help if changes occur are ways of reducing the risk or impact of breast cancer.