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An apricot kernel is a single seed found inside the stone of an apricot. Billed as a new “superfood,” some people believe that apricot kernels have cancer-fighting and detox-enhancing properties.
There is currently no research to support the claim that apricot seeds can fight cancer. Furthermore, scientists have warned that a compound in the apricot kernel converts to cyanide in the body at levels that could be harmful.
Is eating apricot kernels a safe alternative way to treat cancer or another dangerous health fad? We sort the facts from the fiction.
Apricot kernels are similar in appearance to a small almond. Fresh apricot kernels are white. The skin becomes light brown when dried out.
In Egypt, people mix coriander seeds and salt with ground apricot kernel to make a traditional snack, known as “dokka.”
Some manufacturers use apricot kernels in the production of cosmetics, medicine, and oil.
The kernels contain protein, fiber, and a high percentage of oil, which people can extract from the kernel.
People use oil pressed from the sweet kernel can be used for cooking in the same way as they might use sweet almond oil. Processed foods, such as amaretto biscuits, almond finger biscuits, and apricot jams, contain apricot kernels.
Some people who live in the North-West Himalayas think wild apricots and their kernels have both nutritional and medicinal uses. Possible uses include biodiesel production, skin, and hair-care products.
Oil and kernels from the bitter variety of apricot kernel are often ingredients in cosmetics, such as body oil, face cream, lip balm, and essential oil.
In India, people use apricot kernel oil is used to make massage oil, because they believe it relieves aches and pains.
A range of apricot kernel products is available for purchase online.
What nutrients do apricot kernels contain?
One study reports that, depending on the type of apricot, the kernels are composed of:
- Oils: From 27.7 to 66.7 percent
- Proteins: Between 14.1 and 45.3 percent, of which 32 to 34 percent are essential amino acids
- Carbohydrates: From 18.1 to 27.9 percent
Around 5 percent of the kernel is fiber.
Apricot kernel oil is high in essential fatty acids. These are necessary for human health, but the human body cannot produce them, so people must take them in through diet.
There are two main types of essential fatty acids: linoleic acid (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3).
Linolenic acid plays a vital role in brain function and healthy growth and development. Fatty acids also stimulate skin and hair growth, regulate metabolism, maintain bone health, and support the reproductive system. Many people think that fatty acids have antioxidant properties.
In a rodent study published in 2011, rats with liver fibrosis received a dose of 1.5 milligrams (mg) three times a week for 4 weeks of ground apricot kernels. Researchers found there was an improvement in symptoms.
They suggested this may be due to antioxidant activity, as the kernels contain oleic acid and other polyphenols.
Vitamins and minerals
Apricot kernels may have some health benefits, and some people have suggested that they may help fight cancer.
Scientists have proposed that a compound called amygdalin, present in apricot kernels, may be a way to eradicate tumors and prevent cancer by stopping cells from reproducing.
A laboratory study published in 2005 suggested that amygdalin might inhibit genes that lead to cell proliferation.
In 2012, a laboratory study found that enhancing amygdalin with β-D-glucosidase may make it useful in treating liver cancer.
What is amygdalin?
Amygdalin is a naturally occurring substance found in apricot kernels.
It is also present in the seeds of other fruit, including apples, cherries, plums, and peaches. Clover, sorghum, and lima beans also contain amygdalin.
Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside.
When someone eats amygdalin, it converts to cyanide in their body. Cyanide is a fast-acting, potentially deadly chemical.
Depending on the dose, consuming cyanide can lead to:
- a headache
- nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps
- mental confusion
- circulatory problems and cardiac arrest
- inability to breath
Cyanide kills cells in the human body by preventing them from using oxygen. Cyanide is particularly harmful to the heart and the brain because they use a lot of oxygen.
Exposure can lead to long-term effects on the heart, brain, and nervous system.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) note that apricot seeds “may have substantial amounts of chemicals which are metabolized to cyanide.”
Estimates state that eating 50 to 60 apricot kernels could deliver a lethal dose of cyanide. Cyanide poisoning can occur at much lower levels, however.
People who follow these dose recommendations are likely to be exposed to cyanide levels that cause cyanide poisoning.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) have warned that a single serving of three small apricot kernels or one large apricot kernel could put adults over the suggested safe levels of cyanide exposure, while one small kernel could be toxic to an infant.
The EFSA advise that no one should consume more than 20 micrograms (mcg) of cyanide per kilogram of body weight at one time. This limits consumption to one kernel for adults. Even half a kernel would be over the limit for children.
Researchers note that the seeds of bitter apricots have a particularly high level of amygdalin at 5.5 grams (g) in every 100 g.
What is laetrile? What is vitamin B-17?
Laetrile, also called B-17, is a partly synthetic form of amygdalin. It has been proposed as an alternative treatment for cancer.
Laetrile is produced from amygdalin through a chemical reaction with water.
In 1952, the biochemist, Ernst T. Krebs, Jr. developed laetrile in an injectable form. His father had tried apricot seeds as a cancer treatment in 1920, but this proved to be toxic.
Some people with cancer might take laetrile in the hope that it will:
- boost their energy levels
- improve their health and sense of wellbeing
- “detox” and cleanse the body
- prolong life
It is available as:
- a skin lotion
- oral tablets
- a liquid inserted into the rectum.
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not approve B-17, or laetrile, for use in the U.S. It is deemed unsafe for food and drug use. It has not been shown to have any use in the treatment of any disease.
Side effects of laetrile are similar to those of cyanide poisoning.
- nausea, vomiting, and headache
- very low blood pressure and blue skin due to low oxygen levels
- liver damage
- droopy upper eyelid
- difficulty walking due to nerve damage
Some sources have promoted the use of laetrile as an anti-cancer agent, and it is available as a treatment in Mexico and some clinics in the U.S.
Some sources suggest that people take laetrile to:
- improve energy levels and well-being
- detox the body
- help them live longer
There is currently no scientific evidence to support the use of laetrile for these purposes or to treat cancer.
What do the health authorities say?
In 2018, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) pointed out that laetrile leads to cyanide production in the body and that the American Institute of Nutrition Vitamins have not approved it as a vitamin.
The NCI note:
“Anecdotal reports and case reports have not shown laetrile to be an effective treatment for cancer.”
They add that there are no reports of any controlled clinical trials that have taken place in people.
Also, they point out that because laetrile comes from Mexico, it may not carry the same safety standards governing purity and contents when manufactured.
There is also concern that people might take laetrile instead of following proven therapy regimes for cancer, such as targeted drugs or radiation therapy. Using unproven methods in place of conventional medicine can cause serious harm.
The NCI add that the FDA “has not approved laetrile as a treatment for cancer or any other medical condition.”
What about vitamin B-15?
Also present in apricot kernels is another so-called vitamin, B-15, or calcium pangamate. This, too, has been proposed for treating cancer.
However, as long ago as 1980, scientists concluded that calcium pangamate can cause genetic mutations and has a “90-percent probability” of causing rather than curing cancer.
The FDA considers vitamin B-15 “unsafe for food and drug use.”
No reliable evidence confirms laetrile as an effective treatment for cancer, and there is evidence that it is toxic and potentially fatal.
Most websites that support laetrile as a cancer treatment base their claims on anecdotal evidence and unsupported opinions.
One such article was published in 2008 by Stephen Krashen, a professor of linguistics at the University of Southern California (emeritas). Krashen argued that “Death by apricot kernels appears to be rare.”
Krashen suggested that people may “accommodate”apricot kernels, “having negative reactions at first but gradually building up to higher doses.”
However, in 2010, researchers published results of a review of 13 children who had experienced cyanide poisoning after eating apricot kernels. All the children attended the same pediatric intensive care unit in Turkey between 2005 and 2009.
The scientists concluded:
“Cyanide poisoning associated with ingestion of apricot seeds is an important poison in children, many of whom require intensive care.”
In 2015, a review of studies published by the Cochrane Library concluded that there was no reliable evidence to show any benefit from using laetrile or amygdalin in the treatment of cancer.
A rodent study published in 1975 records no antitumor activity after the use of amygdalin, but notes a risk of toxicity.
In 1982, some people who received laetrile as a cancer treatment showed evidence of cyanide toxicity. Also, there were no recorded examples of any improvement in cancer symptoms.
Consumption of apricot kernels and laetrile is not recommended during pregnancy or while breastfeeding. There is a lack of data on the possible risk of congenital disabilities.
In 2006, Cancer Treatment Watch posted an article, originally published in 1977, describing the use of laetrile as “quackery”and criticizing promoters of the supplement for preying on the fears of people with cancer to maintain a lucrative international business.
In conclusion, the ingestion of laetrile and apricot kernels carries a risk of serious illness and death, but manufacturers and producers continue to promote both products widely today.
Processing foods that contain amygdalin reduces the risk but does not eliminate it. Options include crushing, grinding, grating, soaking, fermenting, or drying.
If the manufacturers can remove the harmful elements can be removed, certain chemicals inside apricot kernels may one day prove useful for cancer treatment. For now, however, doctors and other healthcare professionals cannot recomend the use of apricot kernels.
Some people describe this view as “overly cautious.” Is it really dangerous to eat apricot seeds?