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A low red blood count, or anemia, can cause feelings of fatigue and weakness. When a person has a lower red blood count than is normal, their body has to work harder to get enough oxygen to the cells.
A low red blood cell (RBC) count can cause a variety of symptoms and health complications.
There are several diet and lifestyle changes people can make to help the body increase its RBC count. However, if symptoms continue, it is important to see a doctor.
RBCs are the most common component of human blood. The cells contain hemoglobin, which is a protein that carries oxygen around the body. Hemoglobin is also responsible for blood’s red color.
RBCs circulate the body for an average of 115 days. After this, they go to the liver, where they break down. The body recycles their nutrients back into the cells.
The bone marrow continuously produces RBCs. If the body does not receive a regular supply of necessary nutrients, the RBCs may become malformed or die off at a faster rate than the body can replace them.
In this article, we look at dietary and lifestyle changes that support RBC production, as well as giving an overview of how to understand RBC count and recognize the symptoms of low RBC levels.
A low RBC count usually occurs when a person does not eat enough essential nutrients. Eating more nutrient-dense foods can give the body the necessary tools to create functional RBCs.
People can also take these essential vitamins and minerals as supplements, although it is best to get nutrients from healthful foods in the diet if possible. It is best to consume foods that provide the following nutrients:
Iron is the nutrient with most links to anemia. The body uses iron to make hemoglobin, which stores oxygen in the blood cells. Without iron, these cells may die or become unable to send oxygen around the body.
- shellfish, such as oysters, clams, and mussels
- fortified cereals
- chocolate with 45–69% cacao solids
- baked potato with the skin attached
- beef liver
- chicken liver
- white beans
A B-12 deficiency can trigger the development of abnormal RBCs called megaloblasts, which may lead to a condition doctors call megaloblastic anemia.
Vitamin B-12 binds to protein in food and naturally occurs in red meat, fish, and shellfish. Dairy products, such as milk and cheese, also contain vitamin B-12.
Manufacturers often fortify breakfast cereals, milk substitutes, and nutritional yeast with vitamin B-12. Eating these foods can supplement a person’s daily intake, particularly if they do not eat meat or dairy.
People with low levels of folate may develop anemia.
- beef liver
- brussels sprouts
- green, leafy vegetables, such as spinach and mustard greens
- oranges and orange juice
- black-eyed peas
- kidney beans
- enriched breads and grains
While vitamin C does not directly affect RBCs, it is still important, because it helps the body absorb more iron. Iron increases the number of RBCs that the body makes.
Vitamin C occurs in a variety of foods,
- red and green peppers
- baked potatoes
- grapefruit juice
Some manufacturers also fortify food with vitamin C.
The following foods are
- beef liver
- shellfish, such as oysters and crabs
- sunflower seeds
- sesame seeds
Retinol, or vitamin A, supports a person’s RBC count similarly to copper. It may help the cells absorb the iron they need to function at full capacity.
Foods that can supply vitamin A
Making simple lifestyle changes can have a significant impact on a person’s RBC count.
Reducing alcohol consumption
It may be helpful to eliminate or reduce alcoholic beverages from the diet, as drinking too much alcohol may lower the RBC count.
According to dietary guidelines in the United States, moderate drinking for adult males is two alcoholic drinks per day or less. For adult females, moderate drinking is one alcoholic drink a day or less.
Moderate exercise can provide benefits for any person who practices it. However, it is especially important for creating healthy RBCs.
Sustained vigorous exercise that raises the heart rate increases the body and brain’s need for oxygen. This is why the heart beats faster, and the lungs breathe deeper and quicker.
This need for oxygen stimulates the body to produce more RBCs. Regular exercise alongside a healthful diet means the bone marrow has the best tools to create those cells.
Possible workouts include:
- guided exercise classes, such as spinning or aerobics
However, even taking the stairs instead of an elevator, going for a walk, or engaging in a little gardening can count toward a daily or weekly exercise requirement.
The American Heart Association (AHA) recommend engaging in
Having a low red blood count or anemia can cause symptoms that may include:
Anemia can lead to serious complications that may be life threatening without treatment.
Normal RBC counts vary from around:
- 4.7–6.1 million cells per microliter (µL) of blood for males
- 4.2–5.4 million cells per µL of blood for females
- 4.0–5.5 million cells per µL of blood for children
These ranges can vary between individuals and may also change depending on the lab performing the tests.
Several disorders can cause an RBC count to be lower than normal. These can include:
- bleeding and hemorrhaging
- kidney disease
- bone marrow failure
Higher than average RBC counts are also dangerous and may also be life threatening. Several conditions can increase RBC levels too far, including:
- heart conditions
- bone marrow disease
- smoking tobacco
- kidney problems
Certain medications can also affect the RBC count, making it too high or too low.
Dietary and lifestyle changes are not enough to manage RBC levels in some people. Doctors may recommend other options to help increase the number of RBCs in the blood.
A doctor may prescribe certain medications to stimulate the production of RBCs. They may recommend hormone treatment to people with anemia due to cancer, kidney disease, diabetes, or any other disorder that may have caused a hormonal malfunction.
If tests show that the person’s low RBC count is due to a different cause, doctors will attempt to treat the underlying condition. Treatment may help the RBC count improve on its own. However, diet and lifestyle choices can support a healthy RBC count alongside specific treatment.
A doctor may rarely recommend a blood transfusion if RBC levels do not respond to medications and lifestyle changes.
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