But hunger pangs can happen even if the body does not need food. Several other situations and conditions can lead to hunger pangs, including:
Read on to learn more about hunger pains and discover how to ease them.
What are the causes?
People get hunger pangs or hunger pains for several different reasons. Seven reasons are explained here:
1. Hunger hormone
The release of ghrelin in the body, dehydration, and a person's emotional state can cause hunger pains.
The brain triggers the release of a hormone called ghrelin in response to an empty stomach or in anticipation of the next meal.
Ghrelin signals the body to release stomach acids to digest food. If food is not consumed, the stomach acids begin to attack the lining of the stomach, causing hunger pains.
Studies have shown that ghrelin increases hunger by up to 30 percent when it is administered to adults.
2. Quality of food eaten
Hunger pangs can happen even when the body does not need calories.
This is because ghrelin interacts with insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar. Falling levels of insulin cause ghrelin, and therefore hunger, levels to rise.
Junk food contains high amounts of sugar and simple carbohydrates. Eating it causes a spike in insulin levels, followed by a quick drop. Ghrelin then increases, even though the food was consumed only an hour or so beforehand.
In this way, eating even large amounts of poor quality food can increase hunger and cause the pang response in the body.
Many people cannot tell the difference between hunger and thirst because the symptoms are so similar.
Thirst can cause symptoms, such as:
- stomach pains
4. The environment
Some people experience pangs in response to smells and sights. Many people have a physical response to the smell of freshly baked goods or cooking. Images of food on T.V. or online can also cause the mouth to water.
Although this type of hunger may not be based on a need for food, it causes very real physical symptoms, including hunger pains.
5. Lack of sleep
Overeating and excess weight have long been associated with sleep deprivation. It appears that hunger pains may be linked to a lack of sleep or poor-quality sleep.
Lack of sleep increases the effects of a chemical that makes eating sweet, salty, and high-fat foods more appealing, a 2016 study suggests.
The sleep-deprived study participants ate a meal containing 90 percent of their daily calories but were unable to resist junk foods just 2 hours later.
6. Emotional state
People may mistake their brain signals for food as hunger pains in some cases. This situation can occur when someone is in a heightened emotional state.
A rumbling or growling stomach can sometimes help distinguish between emotional and physical hunger. The noises can only be heard when the stomach is empty.
7. Medication and medical conditions
Hunger pangs may be caused by medical conditions in rare cases. This is true for people with diabetes, as hunger increases when blood sugar crashes.
It can indicate an infection or digestive illness that requires medical attention if pains occur alongside other symptoms. Look out for symptoms, such as:
Some medications, including certain antidepressants, may interfere with hunger signals and ghrelin release.
Symptoms of hunger pains may include tiredness, irritability, and lightheadedness.
Hunger pains feel like a gnawing or rumbling in the stomach. They may also present as contractions or the feeling of emptiness.
Other symptoms may include:
- cravings for certain foods
- strong desire to eat
Once food is consumed, hunger pains and other hunger symptoms usually go away. The stomach adjusts to this new level of fullness (or emptiness), so they may even subside without eating anything.
Hunger pains when dieting
Research on mice has found that there is an instinctive desire to reduce hunger pangs and other hunger signals. Certain neurons in the brain kick in to fuel appetite once a certain amount of bodyweight has been lost.
This may explain why it is challenging to stick to a diet when experiencing hunger pains.
There may be other ways to control hunger pangs while losing weight even though the researchers suggest that manipulating these neurons will help people maintain their diets.
How to alleviate hunger pains
To alleviate hunger pains, especially when dieting, people can try the following:
Eat at regular intervals
Ghrelin is released in response to what someone's usual mealtimes are.
Sticking to a schedule will ensure food reaches the stomach in time to meet the stomach acid released in response to ghrelin spikes.
It can also be helpful to carry healthful, low-calorie snacks, such as fruit and nuts, when outside the home, in case it is not possible to eat a full meal at a designated meal time.
Choose nutrient-dense foods
Eating healthful foods including whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, are recommended to alleviate hunger pains.
Avoid insulin dips by choosing healthful food options instead of processed ones.
Eat balanced meals that contain:
- lean protein, such as beans, lentils, and skinless poultry
- whole grains, including brown rice, oats, quinoa, and whole-wheat products
- fruits and vegetables, including fresh, frozen, and canned (without added sugar)
- healthful fats, found in avocados, olives, nuts, and seeds
- low-fat dairy products or dairy alternatives
A person should try to limit the intake of foods that are high in sugar, salt, saturated fats, and trans fats. Refined carbohydrates, including white bread and white pasta, should be eaten in moderation or not at all.
Fill up on low-calorie foods
Some low-calorie foods are considered high-volume, meaning they take up space in the stomach yet do not contribute to weight gain.
A full stomach will cause levels of ghrelin to drop, which alleviates hunger pains. High-volume, low-calorie foods include:
- raw or lightly steamed green vegetables
- homemade vegetable soups
- green smoothies
Sip water throughout the day. Aim to drink 8 glasses daily. Limit diuretic drinks, such as caffeine and alcohol, which contribute to dehydration.
Get enough sleep
It is sensible to avoid food cravings caused by sleep deprivation by establishing a sleep routine. It helps to go to bed and get up at the same time every day and aim to sleep for 7 to 9 hours nightly.
Practice mindful eating
When eating, focus on the taste and texture of each bite. Chew food thoroughly. Do not watch television during mealtimes.
A person can try to ignore hunger pains if they are not based on a real need for food.
Effective distractions include:
When to see a doctor
Consult a doctor if hunger pains regularly persist despite eating balanced meals. Stomach pains may suggest a gastrointestinal disorder or infection.
People who experience the following symptoms along with their hunger pangs should also see a doctor:
- rapid changes in weight
- sleep difficulties
Stomach pains are a normal response to hunger. Although they may signal a need for food, it is possible to experience hunger pangs in response to other situations, including dehydration, sleep loss, and anxiety.
Hunger pains rarely need medical attention, as they usually go away once food is eaten.
People who are dieting may wish to take steps to alleviate their hunger pains to meet their weight loss goals.