Endometriosis occurs when cells similar to those lining the uterus grow elsewhere in the body. But what is the link between endometriosis and pregnancy?
Becoming pregnant may be more difficult for people with endometriosis. However, many people with endometriosis do get pregnant and have healthy babies.
This article discusses the effect of pregnancy on endometriosis symptoms. It also considers whether or not having endometriosis during pregnancy increases the risk of complications.
Pregnancy has different effects on each person with endometriosis. Some people may find that becoming pregnant relieves their endometriosis symptoms, as they will no longer be having periods.
Raised levels of the hormone progesterone during pregnancy may also improve symptoms.
Research has found that progestin, which is a synthetic version of progesterone, reduces endometriosis pain for around 90% of women. Progestin is a standard treatment for endometriosis.
The body’s natural progesterone may have similar effects to progestin for some people, but not everyone with endometriosis finds that their symptoms improve during pregnancy.
In fact, pregnancy can worsen some endometriosis symptoms. This may be due to the growing uterus putting extra pressure or traction on existing areas of endometriosis.
Another factor that may worsen endometriosis symptoms during pregnancy is a rise in the hormone estrogen, which can encourage more endometriosis lesions to develop.
Even if pregnancy does provide relief, the symptoms of endometriosis are likely to return once a person’s periods start again after pregnancy, although nursing can delay this further.
People with endometriosis may be more likely to experience complications during pregnancy or when giving birth.
Most people with endometriosis can have a healthy, uncomplicated pregnancy.
There are no specific monitoring tests or treatments for people who are pregnant and have endometriosis beyond what doctors typically offer during pregnancy.
However, having endometriosis may slightly increase the risk of the following complications:
The results of a 2017 population-based study in Denmark suggest that pregnant women with endometriosis have a higher risk of preeclampsia.
Symptoms of preeclampsia include:
- high blood pressure
- facial or non-gravity dependent swelling
- a headache
- trouble seeing or changes in vision
- pain below the ribs
A person with symptoms of preeclampsia during pregnancy should speak with a doctor. The doctor will also check for signs of this condition during routine pregnancy appointments.
2. Placenta previa
Placenta previa is when the placenta lies very low in the womb, partially or fully covering the cervix. Placenta previa may endanger the baby and the gestational parent during childbirth.
A person with placenta previa will usually require a cesarean delivery.
The primary sign of placenta previa is bright red vaginal bleeding. Any pregnant person experiencing this should speak with a doctor.
3. Preterm birth
Research suggests that having endometriosis may increase the risk of preterm birth.
Also known as premature birth, this is when the baby is born after less than 37 weeks of gestation.
4. Cesarean delivery
According to research, having endometriosis may increase the likelihood of needing a cesarean delivery.
A cesarean delivery uses a surgical procedure in the abdominal region to remove the baby if vaginal birth is not possible.
Doctors may perform a cesarean delivery if vaginal birth is unsafe for the gestational parent or baby.
In spontaneous pregnancies, having endometriosis may increase the risk of miscarriage by up to 80%, according to a
Lower back pain, cramping, or bleeding during pregnancy may indicate a miscarriage. Pregnant people should consult a doctor if they experience any of these symptoms.
Many people use hormonal therapies to manage endometriosis. These include progestin-only pills, combined pills containing estrogen and progestin, and intrauterine devices (IUDs).
No known harm to the gestational parent or fetus occurs when taking
Some people also manage the condition by having keyhole surgeries, or laparoscopies, to remove endometriosis lesions. Doctors will likely only perform surgery during pregnancy in the event of a surgical emergency.
Pregnant people with endometriosis may safely manage their symptoms by:
Experts estimate that endometriosis affects as many as
When a person has endometriosis, cells similar to those that line the uterus grow elsewhere in the body, including:
- on the outside of the uterus wall
- on the fallopian tubes
- behind or on the ovaries
- on the bladder
- on the bowel and rectum
Endometriosis can also affect other parts of the body.
Endometriosis lesions respond to the menstrual cycle, meaning that this tissue also thickens and breaks down or bleeds each month. However, it cannot flow out of the vagina, so the blood remains trapped in the body and causes pain, inflammation, and other symptoms.
Endometriosis may also cause pelvic adhesions, where tissues in the pelvis stick together.
Many people with endometriosis have a safe pregnancy and birth with help from their doctor.
Although some people experience a reduction in their symptoms during pregnancy and while nursing, others find their symptoms remain the same or worsen.
It is essential for people to speak with a doctor about how to manage endometriosis symptoms during pregnancy, as many traditional treatment options are unsafe at this time.
Endometriosis rarely increases the risk of complications during pregnancy and childbirth, but a doctor can advise on the best way to manage the condition. Anyone presenting symptoms of a complication should consult their doctor.