The symptoms of a panic attack and a heart attack can be very similar, making it difficult to tell the difference. Recognizing the symptoms of both conditions can help a person to know when to seek immediate medical help.
Having a heart attack also can cause someone to panic, which may make the situation more confusing. If someone thinks they may be having a heart attack, they should seek emergency medical attention.
Symptoms of a panic attack can include:
- sharp pain in the chest
- tingling in the hands
- shortness of breath
- racing heart
A panic attack can happen alone or as a symptom of panic disorder. Every year, about 2–3% of people in the United States experience panic disorder, and more will experience a panic attack without having panic disorder. To learn more about the links between a panic attack and panic disorder, see our decidated article here.
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- chest pain
- shortness of breath
While the symptoms of these two conditions overlap, knowing how to tell the difference can be lifesaving.
Knowing the difference between a panic attack and a heart attack can be difficult, especially if a person has never experienced the symptoms of either before.
A person can distinguish between the two conditions by weighing several factors, including:
Characteristics of the pain
Although chest pain is common to both a panic attack and a heart attack, the characteristics of the pain often differ.
During a panic attack, chest pain is usually sharp or stabbing and localized in the middle of the chest.
Chest pain from a heart attack may resemble pressure or a squeezing sensation.
Chest pain that occurs due to a heart attack may also start in the center of the chest, but can then radiate from the chest to the arm, jaw, or shoulder blades.
The onset of symptoms may also help a person determine if they are having a panic attack or heart attack.
Although both conditions can develop suddenly and without warning, some heart attacks come on due to physical exertion, such as climbing the stairs.
The duration of symptoms might also help distinguish between a heart attack and a panic attack.
Most panic attacks are over in
During a heart attack, symptoms tend to last longer and get worse over time. For example, chest pain may be mild at the onset of a heart attack but become severe after several minutes.
A panic attack will not cause a heart attack. A blockage in one or more of the blood vessels to the heart, which leads to an interruption of vital blood flow, causes a heart attack.
Although a panic attack will not cause a heart attack, stress and anxiety might play a role in the development of coronary artery disease.
Panic attacks can occur as isolated events or as part of an anxiety disorder.
Some research indicates that people with anxiety disorders may have an increased risk of developing heart disease due to low heart rate variability (HRV).
HRV is the time between each heartbeat. The autonomic nervous system controls the heart rate. The heart rate is meant to vary throughout the day, depending on a person’s activities and emotions.
A high HRV indicates that a person’s heart rate shifts efficiently throughout the day, based on what they are doing. It is also a sign that their autonomic nervous system is working well.
A low HRV means a person’s heart does not switch gears as efficiently. Some studies associate a low HRV with an increased risk of heart disease.
In the researchers’ analysis of studies looking at HRV in people who were diagnosed with various types of anxiety disorder, including panic disorder, the results indicated the participants had a lower HRV than those without an anxiety disorder.
It is crucial to understand that having a panic attack does not mean someone will have a heart attack. A person with panic disorder may experience repeated panic attacks, but more research is needed to determine if having panic disorder increases the risk of developing heart disease.
As the symptoms of panic attacks and heart attacks are similar, it is always best to seek immediate medical attention when in doubt.
It is vital to seek emergency medical treatment if any of the following symptoms develop:
- sudden, severe chest pain
- pressure in the chest lasting more than 2 or 3 minutes
- chest pain radiating down the arm or into the jaw
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Anyone who believes they may be having a heart attack should seek prompt treatment. If it is a heart attack, treatment will improve their chance of a good outlook and full recovery. If it is not a heart attack the person may benefit from treatment for anxiety.
The outlook will vary, depending on whether a person has experienced a heart attack or a panic attack.
Although a panic attack may feel very uncomfortable, it is not life-threatening. People should still seek appropriate treatment for panic attacks, which can interfere with their quality of life.
A doctor can help treat anxiety and panic attacks with various techniques, including lifestyle modifications, medication, and counseling.
In some cases, a heart attack can be life-threatening. Following a heart attack, a person will also need to take steps to manage the underlying heart disease.