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Research suggests that various supplements, including vitamins, omega-3 fatty acids, and herbal remedies, may help relieve the symptoms of anxiety.

Anxiety can take many forms. It can cause worry, unease, fear, or panic.

According to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) affects around 6.8 million adults. Other anxiety disorders include panic disorders and phobias.

Treatment options for anxiety disorders include therapy, medication, or a combination of both. Some natural supplements could also help with everyday anxiety. However, not all supplements are safe or effective.

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Vitamin D and vitamin B complex may help ease symptoms of anxiety.

According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), kava was a popular choice before researchers determined that it can cause severe liver disease.

Passionflower is an example of an anxiety remedy that does not have enough quality evidence to support claims of its effectiveness. Studies that do support passionflower’s anti-anxiety effects have serious flaws.

The supplements we discuss in detail in the sections below show promise in easing anxiety symptoms. They also have a good record of safety, as backed up by scientific evidence.

Vitamin D plays an important role in mood regulation and nerve and brain health.

Research has established a link between vitamin D levels and depression, claiming that taking vitamin D supplements may help treat the condition.

Some research suggests that there could be a link between vitamin D deficiency and anxiety disorders. A 2017 study found that taking vitamin D supplements improved both depression and anxiety in women with type 2 diabetes.

However, research into the link between anxiety and vitamin D has produced mixed results, so further studies are necessary to explore the connection.

The body makes vitamin D as a result of the skin’s exposure to sunlight. People can get more vitamin D by spending more time in the sun, eating foods rich in vitamin D — the main source being oily fish, such as salmon and mackerel — or taking vitamin D supplements.

Few plant foods contain vitamin D, so it can be difficult for people following vegetarian or vegan diets to get enough vitamin D from the diet alone.

Vitamin D is unlikely to interact with anti-anxiety medications, although it may interfere with other prescription drugs.

Further resources

For more in-depth resources about vitamins, minerals, and supplements, visit our dedicated hub.

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B vitamins are a group of eight different nutrients that work together to manage many processes in the body, including stress levels.

A 2017 study found that the participants who had lower blood levels of vitamin B12 were more likely to have depression or anxiety.

Moreover, a 2018 study found that people who ate foods high in B vitamins — in this case, yeast-based spreads, such as Marmite and Vegemite — had better anxiety and stress scores than people who did not. This was more pronounced for spreads fortified with vitamin B12.

Taking B complex supplements can help a person get enough of all the B vitamins.

Learn more about the benefits and uses of vitamin B complex supplements here.

People can usually get enough B vitamins from eating a variety of nutritious foods.

Some B vitamins, including vitamins B12 and B2, or riboflavin, mostly occur in animal-based foods. For this reason, people following a vegetarian or vegan diet may need to obtain these nutrients in other ways.

Read about vegetarian and vegan food sources of vitamin B12 here.

Vitamin B supplements are unlikely to interact with anxiety medications. However, they may interfere with other prescription medications.

Magnesium is an important mineral necessary for effective functioning of almost every system in the human body.

Several studies suggest that it plays a role in anxiety.

A 2017 systematic review looked at the results of 18 different studies. The researchers found that magnesium supplements may improve measures of anxiety in people vulnerable to the condition. They note, however, that the quality of evidence is currently poor.

Also, a short 2016 review study reports that people with anxiety related to premenstrual syndrome benefited from taking magnesium supplements.

A person can take magnesium supplements or obtain the nutrient by eating the following high magnesium foods:

Taking high doses of magnesium can cause diarrhea. Start with a lower dose, such as 100 milligrams (mg). Avoid exceeding 350 mg per day without a doctor’s approval.

Magnesium can interfere with the efficacy of drugs such as antibiotics. Some drugs, including antidepressants and antipsychotic medication, may also interfere with magnesium.

L-theanine is an amino acid that occurs in green and black tea. Some evidence suggests that it is a mild sedative and anti-anxiety agent.

A 2016 double-blind study found that people who consumed a beverage containing 200 mg of L-theanine had lower stress response and cortisol levels after undertaking a challenging task than those who received a placebo.

Start with the lowest effective dosage of L-theanine. Supplements often come in 200-mg capsules. People should not exceed 400 mg without first consulting a doctor.

L-theanine may interact with midazolam. Also, people should not combine L-theanine with sedatives.

A supplement that contains a wide range of vitamins and minerals may benefit people with anxiety.

A 2019 study reports that a supplement that contained B vitamins, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, and zinc significantly decreased anxiety in young adults.

A 2018 study notes that multivitamin supplements may benefit people who have mood disorders, such as anxiety.

Each brand of multivitamins contains a different composition of ingredients. It is advisable to check with a doctor or pharmacist about which may be best.

Multivitamins typically do not interfere with anxiety medications.

Omega-3 fats are present in foods such as fish and flaxseed. They play an important role in brain health.

The body cannot make these fats, so people need to get them from their diet.

A 2018 systematic review and meta-analysis looked at the results of 19 clinical trials and concludes that taking an omega-3 supplement, such as fish oil, could be helpful for people with anxiety.

A 2018 review study suggests that a low intake of omega-3 fats can raise the risk of anxiety and depression and that taking omega-3 supplements could help prevent or treat these conditions.

Learn about the best dietary sources of omega-3 here.

Omega-3 fatty acids can interfere with certain medications, including blood thinners. People should seek guidance from a doctor before taking omega-3 supplements if they have existing health conditions or take any prescription medication.

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Valerian root is safe to use for short periods.

People have used the valerian plant as medicine for thousands of years.

The NCCIH states that valerian is safe for otherwise healthy adults to use for short periods and that people use it for anxiety.

However, more studies are needed before researchers know whether it is effective. There are, as yet, no studies that prove it is safe for long-term use.

A 2017 double-blind study compared the effects of valerian and a placebo on 48 women experiencing postmenopause. It notes that those who took the supplements reported lower levels of anxiety and depression.

Valerian can have adverse effects when people take it with sedatives and anxiety medications, such as benzodiazepines.

Chamomile is a daisy-like flower that people have used for thousands of years for its calming effects.

The NCCIH explains, “Some preliminary studies suggest that a chamomile dietary supplement might be helpful for [GAD].”

It also states that the research community does not know much about chamomile’s effects yet, because scientists have not studied it to a reliable degree in humans.

A 2016 study reports that people who took chamomile extract for 8 weeks had a reduction in GAD symptoms. Its effects were comparable with those of an anti-anxiety drug. The participants took 1,500 mg of chamomile per day.

A randomized study from 2016 found that people who took 500 mg of chamomile extract three times per day had fewer symptoms of GAD than those who took a placebo.

People can take chamomile supplements, use chamomile essential oils, or drink chamomile tea.

Chamomile may interact with other drugs. A person should consult a healthcare professional before taking chamomile.

Some people find the scent of lavender relaxing. Some evidence suggests that smelling this plant can help ease anxiety.

The NCCIH states that people use lavender for anxiety but that the existing research into its effectiveness has produced mixed results. Therefore, more research is needed.

A 2017 study found that people who used lavender aromatherapy before surgery had lower anxiety than those who did not.

People can inhale a lavender essential oil by using an essential oil diffuser. They may also apply lavender essential oil to the skin after diluting it with a carrier oil, such as olive or coconut oil.

Lavender may enhance the effects of some drugs, including antidepressants, sedatives, and anxiety medication.

Lemon balm is an herb that has leaves with a lemon-like aroma. It is related to mint and is a popular calming remedy.

A 2016 study found that lemon balm tea, or Melissa officinalis, improved anxiety symptoms and sleep quality in people who had experienced burns.

A 2019 double-blind study looked at the cases of people who recently had heart bypass surgery. Those who took capsules containing 1.5 grams of dried lemon balm per day had lower anxiety levels than those who took a placebo.

Lemon balm may interact with sedatives.

Many different supplements can be helpful for people with anxiety.

Before taking any natural supplements, it is advisable to seek guidance from a doctor. People should not stop taking anxiety medications without a doctor’s approval.

Buying supplements

People can buy most of the supplements listed above from a drugstore or grocery store. Otherwise, they can choose from a range of brands online:

Supplements are not the only way to manage anxiety using natural remedies. People who have anxiety may also wish to try meditation, yoga, deep breathing techniques, and regular exercise to help manage their symptoms.