Eyebrow pain or tension can be due to various causes, including headaches, infections, or conditions affecting the facial nerves.

Some conditions may only affect one side of the face, such as above the left or right eyebrow, while others cause pain around the eyebrows.

This article looks at eight possible causes of eyebrow pain and the treatment options for each.

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Trigeminal neuralgia is a condition that causes sharp, intense pain in areas of the face. The trigeminal nerve connects the brain to the face, allowing a person to sense touch and changes in temperature.

Trigeminal neuralgia usually affects just one side of the face, but in rare cases, it can affect both sides.

Some people with this condition may experience a stabbing pain or pain that feels like an electric shock. Others may have a constant aching or burning sensation in the face.

Glaucoma occurs when excess fluid builds up in the front of the eye and damages the optic nerve. It can cause severe pain around the eyebrow and eye.

Other symptoms of glaucoma include:

  • blind spots in the vision
  • blurred vision
  • headaches
  • nausea or vomiting
  • seeing rainbows or halos

It is vital to receive treatment for glaucoma. Without treatment, it can cause permanent vision loss.

Migraine can cause pain around the eyebrows, eyes, and temples. A migraine episode can last from 4 hours to 3 days.

Symptoms of a migraine episode can include:

  • intense head pain
  • a throbbing sensation
  • nausea and vomiting
  • increased sensitivity to light and sound
  • pain that increases when a person moves

Learn more about the differences between migraine and a headache.

A cluster headache is a severe headache that can reoccur between one and eight times per day and last from 15 minutes to 3 hours each time.

People may experience a stabbing pain, often either behind the eyebrow or eye or around the temples. This pain and other symptoms usually affect one side of the head.

Symptoms of a cluster headache include:

  • red, teary eyes
  • a runny or stuffy nose
  • a flushed or sweating face
  • a drooping eyelid
  • one smaller pupil
  • restlessness
  • inability to lie still

According to the American Migraine Foundation, tension headaches are one of the most common types of headache, and they can last anywhere from 30 minutes to 7 days.

Pain may spread to the eye, eyebrow, and temple. Symptoms of a tension headache include:

  • mild to moderate pain on both sides of the head
  • increased sensitivity to either light or sound
  • tenderness in the neck muscles

Shingles is a condition that affects the nerves. It occurs in localized areas, usually on one side of the body. These areas can include the face and neck.

The symptoms of shingles include:

  • a very painful rash
  • fluid-filled blisters
  • shooting pain
  • tingling or numbness
  • burning
  • itchiness
  • fever and chills
  • nausea
  • headaches
  • loss of vision

Shingles around the eye is a medical emergency. It is best to contact a doctor immediately if someone has blisters on their face, especially if they are close to the eyes.

This is because if the virus affects nerves in the eye, it means that a person has herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). This can cause vision loss and will require antiviral medication.

Sinusitis is the inflammation of the nasal cavities. It can create a lot of pressure in the face, and people may feel pain around the eyebrows, nose, forehead, and cheeks.

Symptoms of sinusitis include:

  • a blocked or stuffy nose
  • a cough
  • thick, yellow, or green mucus from the nose
  • mucus that drips down the back of the throat

Sinusitis can be either acute or chronic. The symptoms of acute sinusitis usually go away within 1 week or 10 days.

If the symptoms show no improvement with medical treatment and last longer than 12 weeks, a person may have chronic sinusitis.

Giant cell arteritis, or temporal arteritis, is a condition affecting the blood vessels along the side of the head.

Inflammation of these blood vessels can cause pain in the face and other symptoms around the head and neck, such as:

  • pain in the jaw
  • double vision or temporary loss of vision
  • fever
  • tenderness on the scalp
  • tenderness around the temples
  • severe headaches
  • dizziness
  • difficulty swallowing or a sore throat

According to the Arthritis Foundation, people over the age of 50 years, particularly Caucasian women, are more likely to develop giant cell arteritis.

Treatment for eyebrow pain depends on the underlying cause:

  • Headaches and migraine episodes: Taking pain relievers, staying hydrated, and getting plenty of rest and sleep can help.
  • Severe or frequent migraine episodes: A doctor can prescribe medications for pain and other symptoms.
  • Cluster headaches: A doctor may recommend medications or an oxygen mask to help prevent a cluster attack.
  • Shingles: Shingles around the eye is a medical emergency, and a person needs to seek medical attention right away. They will need to receive antiviral treatment through an IV. It is best for adults over the age of 50 years to get a shingles vaccine.
  • Glaucoma: Taking daily eye drop medication can help prevent vision loss in people with glaucoma. Beta-blockers and alpha-agonists also work to reduce fluid buildup in the eye.
  • Sinusitis: People can take decongestants and nasal sprays to treat sinusitis. Pain relievers, plenty of rest, and proper hydration can also help reduce symptoms.
  • Trigeminal neuralgia: A doctor may prescribe medications or recommend surgery, which usually involves damaging the trigeminal nerve to stop the transmission of pain signals.
  • Giant cell arteritis: Corticosteroids can effectively treat the symptoms of giant cell arteritis. A longer course may be necessary to keep inflammation levels low.

It is best to contact a doctor if eyebrow pain is severe, does not go away, or occurs alongside other symptoms.

People with eyebrow pain should seek medical care straight away if they also have the following symptoms:

  • severe pain or swelling in the face
  • swelling or redness around the eyes
  • confusion or disorientation
  • a sudden severe headache
  • drowsiness
  • fever
  • rash
  • nausea and vomiting

People should contact a doctor if they have symptoms of any of the following conditions:

  • shingles
  • giant cell arteritis
  • severe or frequent migraine episodes
  • trigeminal neuralgia
  • glaucoma

If symptoms of sinusitis carry on longer than 10 days or do not improve with treatment, a doctor can help.

People may experience pain behind or around the eyebrows for many reasons. Blocked sinuses or headaches can increase pressure and pain around the eyebrows, which should pass once the cause resolves.

In other instances, eyebrow pain is due to an underlying condition, such as glaucoma.

People with frequent or severe pain around the eyebrows or other symptoms should consider contacting a doctor.