Acid reflux and anxiety may share a close link. Some research suggests that stress and anxiety might make acid reflux symptoms worse.
Anxiety and stress may also be contributing factors to acid reflux in some cases. Conversely, acid reflux can be stressful and may cause anxiety in some people.
People with troubling symptoms or symptoms that do not respond to home treatment should speak with a doctor.
Keep reading to learn more about the link between anxiety and acid reflux.
Acid reflux occurs when acid from the stomach leaks back up into the food pipe, or esophagus. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the term for persistent acid reflux.
Anxiety is a natural response to stress in the body. Paradoxically, experiencing anxiety can be stressful in itself, which can create a cycle.
There is some evidence to suggest that stress and anxiety may provoke acid reflux or make the symptoms worse.
For instance, a
The study authors suggest several possible physical reasons for this:
- Anxiety may reduce pressure in the lower esophageal sphincter, which is the band of muscle that keeps the stomach closed and prevents acid from leaking into the esophagus.
- Stress responses and anxiety may cause long lasting muscle tension. If this affects the muscles around the stomach, it could increase pressure in the organ and push the acid up.
- High anxiety levels may increase stomach acid production.
In some cases, people with anxiety who had the same number of acid reflux episodes as people without anxiety rated these episodes as more severe.
The authors of an older study also found that among people with GERD, the symptoms — including pain behind the breastbone and heartburn — were more severe in those who had higher levels of anxiety.
Why does acid reflux give people anxiety?
In 2019, researchers noted that people with GERD who experienced chest pain had
The study authors also suggest that people may associate symptoms such as chest pain with other more serious conditions, increasing their anxiety about these symptoms.
The combination of these factors can allow a vicious cycle to develop. GERD may cause stress and anxiety, yet stress and anxiety also contribute to GERD. Finding both physical and psychological ways to treat these symptoms is vital to break the cycle and find relief.
Other factors that can lead to acid reflux
- having a hiatal hernia
Certain medications may also cause GERD or worsen its symptoms. A person should speak with a doctor about any medications they are taking if they are concerned about acid reflux and GERD.
Understanding the symptoms of GERD and anxiety may help a person distinguish between them.
Symptoms of GERD
GERD is a condition that causes
Heartburn is a painful, burning feeling in the middle of the chest and, sometimes, the throat. It occurs when the acid from the stomach irritates the esophagus.
Other symptoms of GERD may include:
- nausea or stomach upset
- pain in the chest or abdomen
- painful swallowing
- bad breath
Symptoms of anxiety
Anxiety symptoms vary among individuals, but they may
- rapid heart rate
- nervousness or restlessness
- twitching muscles
- feeling very tense, both physically and mentally
- rapid breathing or hyperventilating
- a feeling of dread or constant impending doom
- difficulty focusing
- other digestive issues, such as gas, diarrhea, or constipation
- inability to sleep
Anxiety may also present as sudden, intense signs of distress called panic attacks. Panic attacks occur when severe symptoms come on very quickly. These can include extreme fear, drastic changes in heartbeat, and changes in breathing.
Many people deal with occasional acid reflux and feel anxious from time to time when they are facing a stressful situation.
When either or both symptoms become regular occurrences, it is important to take steps to treat or prevent them.
Additionally, as the symptoms of acid reflux and anxiety may make each other worse, taking quick action may help prevent this cycle from developing.
People may be able to relieve the symptoms of GERD using
- finding and eliminating foods that trigger the symptoms
- avoiding large or very fatty meals
- eating the last meal of the day no later than 3 hours before going to bed
- taking over-the-counter antacids, such as calcium carbonate (Tums) or bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol)
- taking proton pump inhibitors, such as esomeprazole (Nexium)
- using H2 blockers, such as famotidine (Pepcid)
A person should speak with a doctor about other treatments for GERD if the methods they are using do not help.
Doctors may also recommend taking steps to reduce or prevent anxiety. These may
- attending regular cognitive behavioral therapy sessions
- reducing the intake of caffeine
- avoiding alcohol and recreational drug
- practicing stress relief techniques, such as yoga, meditation, or tai chi
- taking prescription medications, such as antidepressants, anti-anxiety medications, or beta-blockers
A person should always follow a doctor’s instructions when using drugs for anxiety, as some drugs can have severe adverse effects. With benzodiazepines, there is a
In some cases, it is possible to manage the symptoms of both acid reflux and anxiety with lifestyle modifications and over-the-counter medications.
However, anyone experiencing chronic anxiety or acid reflux should speak with a doctor.
Long-term acid reflux may cause other complications, such as scar tissue in the esophagus, Barrett’s esophagus, and, in rare cases, esophageal cancer.
Long-term anxiety can contribute to a range of physical and mental health complications.
The symptoms of both GERD and anxiety can appear similar to those of other conditions. Therefore, a person should consider consulting a doctor for an accurate diagnosis.
Dealing with the combination of acid reflux and anxiety can be frustrating. In some cases, a person may not know whether they are experiencing acid reflux or the physical symptoms of anxiety.
A person should consult a doctor to ensure that they receive the correct treatment.
Finding ways to manage anxiety and taking steps toward treating acid reflux may help end the cycle and help people control their symptoms.