High blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity are just a few of the "traditional" risk factors for developing heart disease, which is the leading cause of death among people in the United States.
But new research suggests that two further risk factors should be added to this list: male pattern baldness and prematurely gray hair.
Results of the study — led by Dr. Kamal Sharma, who is an associate professor in the Department of Cardiology at the U.N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Centre in Ahmedabad, India — were presented at the 69th Annual Conference of the Cardiological Society of India, held in Kolkata, India.
The first author of the study is Dr. Dhammdeep Humane, who is a senior cardiology resident at the U.N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Centre.
Studying baldness and heart disease risk
Dr. Sharma and colleagues investigated 790 men younger than 40 years old who had coronary artery disease, as well as 1,270 age-matched healthy controls.
The team assessed the participants' health using an electrocardiogram, an echocardiogram, blood tests, and a coronary angiogram.
Male pattern baldness was evaluated using a score ranging from 0 (no baldness) to 1 (mild), 2 (moderate), or 3 (severe). Participants were given a score after 24 views of their scalp were analyzed.
A percentage of gray and white hairs was determined and used to give a "hair whitening score" for the participants. The researchers also examined their angiographic lesions, which are a marker of coronary artery disease.
Dr. Sharma and colleagues analyzed the link between baldness, gray hair, and the severity of the lesions in both the heart disease group and the control one.
The results show that half of the men with coronary heart disease had gray hair, compared with only 30 percent of the healthy men. And, almost half of the men (49 percent) had male pattern baldness, compared with 27 percent in the healthy group.
Extra monitoring for heart disease needed
Male pattern baldness increased the risk of coronary artery disease by 5.6 times, and premature graying by 5.3 times. By comparison, obesity increased heart disease risk by little over 4 times.
"The incidence of coronary artery disease in young men," explains study co-author Dr. Sachin Patil, a third-year resident at the U.N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Centre, "is increasing but cannot be explained by traditional risk factors."
"Premature graying and [male pattern baldness]," he adds, "correlate well with vascular age irrespective of chronological age and are plausible risk factors for coronary artery disease."
Dr. Sharma echoes these thoughts, saying, "Baldness and premature graying should be considered risk factors for coronary artery disease. These factors may indicate biological, rather than chronological, age which may be important in determining total cardiovascular risk."
"Currently physicians use common sense to estimate biological age, but a validated scale is needed," he adds.
"Men with premature graying and androgenic alopecia should receive extra monitoring for coronary artery disease and advice on lifestyle changes such as healthy diet, exercise, and stress management."
Dr. Dhammdeep Humane
"Our study found associations," Dr. Humane continues, "but a causal relationship needs to be established before statins can be recommended for men with baldness or premature graying."