In extremely rare cases, people may experience joint pain, swelling, or stiffness after a COVID-19 vaccine. Overall, these vaccines are safe and effective, and it is crucial for all people to get them, provided they are medically able to do so.

A 2021 study involving 1,519 people with arthritis and other musculoskeletal conditions found that only 5 in 100 of the participants experienced flare-ups following the COVID-19 vaccine, and only 1.2% experienced severe flare-ups.

A small 2022 review reported that common flare-up symptoms included swelling, pain, and stiffness in affected joints.

It is important to note that such side effects are rare, and most people receiving COVID-19 vaccines do so without adverse outcomes.

This article discusses why it is important to get the COVID-19 vaccine. It also looks at how safe and effective the vaccine is for those with arthritis.

For more advice on COVID-19 prevention and treatment, visit our coronavirus hub.

A person who may have arthritis receiving the COVID-19 vaccine.Share on Pinterest
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It is important for a person to get the COVID-19 vaccine if they are medically able to do so.

A 2021 study in The Lancet notes that it is advisable for those with rheumatic diseases to receive the COVID-19 vaccination.

This is because the vaccine reduces the likelihood of contracting and spreading the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It also helps prevent people from developing a severe illness with COVID-19 if they contract the virus.

Additionally, those with certain medical conditions have a higher risk of becoming severely ill with COVID-19. This can increase the likelihood of:

  • requiring hospitalization
  • needing intensive care
  • requiring a ventilator to help them breathe
  • experiencing chronic symptoms, or long COVID
  • death

According to a 2021 study, those with rheumatic arthritis (RA) are at higher risk of:

  • contracting SARS-CoV-2
  • developing severe illness with COVID-19
  • requiring hospitalization
  • death due to COVID-19-related complications

The study found that people with RA were 25% more likely than those in the general population to contract the virus. They were also 35% more likely to require hospitalization or die after contracting it.

The COVID-19 vaccine is safe and effective, and a person with arthritis should get the vaccine if they are medically able to do so. However, in rare cases, it is possible that the vaccine can trigger an arthritis flare.

A 2021 study followed 1,519 people with arthritis and other musculoskeletal conditions, including RA, psoriatic arthritis, and other forms of arthritis.

Of the participants, 78% received the Pfizer vaccine, 16% received the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine, 5% received the Moderna vaccine, and 1% received an uncertain vaccine type.

After vaccination, 5% of the participants experienced arthritic flare-ups, and 1.2% experienced severe flare-ups.

Despite this, most data show that the COVID-19 vaccine is safe for people with arthritis. The study found that most adverse effects were the same as those experienced by the general population. The side effects were short-term and nonserious.

The authors of the study conclude that the COVID-19 vaccine is safe for those with RA and those taking treatments that influence the immune system.

A 2022 study involving 5,493 RA patients similarly found that there is no association between two-dose COVID-19 vaccination and arthritis flares.

There is no evidence to date that the vaccine triggers flare-ups in osteoarthritis.

Some researchers have expressed concerns that disease-modifying drugs might change the immune system’s response to the COVID-19 vaccine, making it less effective.

Authors of a 2021 study found lower antibody responses in some people with RA taking these drugs. However, almost all developed a sufficient antibody response by the time they received the second dose of the vaccine.

The lowest antibody response was among those taking Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors.

Despite this, 67% of the 12 people who were taking JAK inhibitors in monotherapy or combination therapy developed a sufficient antibody dose to neutralize SARS-CoV-2.

The study notes that 94% of people taking anticytokine biologics developed a neutralizing antibody response. One anticytokine biologic, rituximab, depletes B cells — which make antibodies. Due to this, people do not receive this until after vaccination is complete.

The most common side effects in those with arthritis include:

The side effects are usually short-term and will resolve without treatment. However, a person should contact a doctor if the side effects persist or steadily worsen.

People who experience difficulty breathing, a severe rash, or other serious symptoms may have a vaccine allergy and should therefore seek immediate medical care.

No arthritis or public health agency currently recommends discontinuing arthritis medication, either because of the vaccine or to avoid contracting SARS-CoV-2.

Stopping arthritis medication can trigger a flare, especially if a person stops taking their medication suddenly.

Moreover, research suggests that even when taking arthritis medication, most people respond well to the vaccine and develop enough antibodies and immune cells to fight the virus.

A person should consult a doctor about the risks and benefits of continuing medications. People with serious underlying health conditions should discuss these conditions with a doctor.

They may also want to undergo testing to ensure their bodies have produced antibodies in response to the vaccine.

All people living in the United States aged 6 months and over are currently eligible for COVID-19 vaccines. This includes people with arthritis.

It is important to note that COVID-19 vaccines are free for everyone, including those without health insurance.

Each state has its own COVID-19 vaccine policies and procedures. A person can try visiting the state department of health for help finding a vaccine locally.

Additionally, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provide a vaccine finder.

People with autoimmune diseases, including RA, may have autoimmune reactions to vaccines that contain live viruses.

None of the COVID-19 vaccines available in the U.S. contains live viruses.

Additionally, not all forms of arthritis are autoimmune conditions. Osteoarthritis causes damage to the cartilage rather than autoimmune reactions.

This means that most people with arthritis do not need to avoid any particular COVID-19 vaccine.

However, if a person has a high risk of blood clots, a doctor may have a vaccine preference for them.

People with arthritis may be concerned about receiving the COVID-19 vaccine. However, the vaccine is very safe and effective for those with arthritis.

A person may experience some side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine, including pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, and, in rare cases, an arthritis flare. For most people, however, the side effects are temporary.

Additionally, receiving the COVID-19 vaccine may be of particular benefit to people with arthritis, especially those with RA, who are at greater risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 and experiencing severe illness due to COVID-19.

A doctor can help a person weigh the risks and benefits of the vaccine and may also be able to make recommendations about preventing an arthritis flare.

If people are concerned about receiving the COVID-19 vaccine, they should consult a healthcare professional.