Crohn’s disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is a long-term, or chronic, condition that results in inflammation in the digestive tract. It can also cause skin problems, such as rashes.
Crohn’s disease pictures can help a person identify complications of the condition and pursue the right treatment.
In about 25% of all cases, these symptoms appear before a person receives a diagnosis or even before they experience digestive symptoms.
In this article, we describe and explain Crohn’s disease symptoms on the skin by type.
A typical Crohn’s disease rash causes lesions of flushed skin due to chronic inflammation. The rash can look like swollen blisters, which may appear in groups or as a single lesion.
One of the
This rash has many possible causes,
Learn how to treat erythema nodosum here.
Other skin disorders
Some other types of rashes and skin symptoms that people with Crohn’s disease may develop include:
- Skin tags: These are small growths of extra skin that may be flesh-colored, pink, or darker than the skin. Some people think they resemble moles. They are
more commonin places where there is a lot of friction, such as the genital area.
- Vasculitis: This group of diseases refers to a type of inflammation in blood vessels that may cause spots of flushed skin or broken capillaries.
- Pyoderma gangrenosum: This skin condition is common among people with Crohn’s disease who experience skin disorders. It causes painful, swollen blisters that may break open and become ulcers. They often grow over time.
- Medication-related lesions: Some people develop blisters on their skin as a side effect of Crohn’s disease treatment. This is because the treatment weakens the immune system, which in turn may increase the risk of skin infections.
- Oral lesions: Some people with Crohn’s disease develop blisters or sores in their mouth. Others develop gum disease. About
10%of people with the condition develop issues with the skin in their mouth.
- Vitiligo: Occasionally, IBD can cause vitiligo, which is a loss of pigment in the skin.
- Psoriasis: This condition causes skin to become scaly, itchy, flushed, or inflamed.
For most Crohn’s skin lesions, treatment focuses on reducing Crohn’s-related inflammation by using disease-modifying agents, such as biological drugs.
In some cases, a person might need additional treatment, such as dental care, removal of skin tags, or antibiotic treatment for an infected blister.
A doctor may use a dermatoscope to examine the skin and reach a diagnosis.
It is rare for Crohn’s disease to affect the vulva or vagina, but it is possible.
If it happens, a person may notice the following:
- swelling of the labia
- skin growths called fistulas
- painful blisters, sores, or lesions on the vagina
- skin tags
Doctors treat this condition with drugs to control inflammation from Crohn’s disease. A doctor can also surgically remove painful or large skin growths.
Perianal Crohn’s disease means that a person has inflammation in or around the anus.
Examples of symptoms a person may experience include:
- Abscesses: Some people develop small pockets of infection. An abscess may look like a very swollen pimple or feel like a painful lump under the skin.
- Fissures: A fissure is a tear in the skin of the anus. It may cause symptoms similar to those of a hemorrhoid, such as pain and bleeding. A person may notice a patch of flushed skin, but it may also be too deep in the anus to see.
- Stenosis: Sometimes, inflammation from Crohn’s disease causes the anus to become very narrow. A person may notice that their anus looks small, tight, or unusual and that it is painful or impossible to have a bowel movement.
Learn about causes of rectal pain here.
Anal skin tags
Some people with Crohn’s disease develop anal skin tags.
Skin tags feel like fleshy, loose lumps. They can be as small as a freckle or larger than a pencil eraser tip. They may be skin-colored, but they may also be darker or lighter than a person’s skin.
Skin tags are no cause for concern. However, they can snag on clothing or other objects and bleed or become infected as a result.
As with skin Crohn’s disease, treatment focuses on reducing the inflammation from the condition and treating any infections. A doctor may also remove skin tags.
Orofacial Crohn’s disease affects the face, mouth, or both. It may be more common in children than in adults.
Some symptoms include:
- deep, painful sores in the mouth
- swollen lips that may crack and bleed
- swelling in the gums
- Crohn’s rashes on the face, such as clusters of blisters or dots
Anti-inflammatory Crohn’s treatments may be effective. Doctors may also recommend prescription mouthwashes, special diets, or additional dental care to prevent severe gum health issues.
Crohn’s disease causes inflammation in the intestines and digestive tract. This can make it more difficult for the body to absorb nutrients from food.
Some stool changes a person may notice, especially during a Crohn’s flare, are:
- Watery stools: More difficulty absorbing water and nutrients can cause diarrhea. A person may have more frequent or very loose bowel movements.
- Constipation: Inflammation, especially of the anus and rectum, can make it harder to pass a stool. This in turn may cause constipation. A person may notice that their stools are very hard or come out in small clumps.
- Blood in the stool: Anal fissures or constipation
may causetraces of red blood in the stools. Dark, tarry stools indicate that a person may be bleeding higher in the gastrointestinal tract, which is a medical emergency.
- Fatty stools: When the body cannot absorb nutrients such as fat, a person’s stool may look fatty or more slimy than usual.
It may be difficult to self-diagnose Crohn’s disease, because many other conditions can produce similar symptoms. Those conditions
- ulcerative colitis, which is another type of IBD
- diverticular disease, which affects the small intestine
- digestive cancers, such as colon cancer
Associated skin conditions
Skin symptoms that are due to Crohn’s disease are also common in many other conditions.
A doctor needs to examine the skin to rule out:
- viruses, such as herpes and chickenpox
- skin infections, including cellulitis
- allergic reactions
Crohn’s disease is treatable. However, without treatment, it can lead to serious complications.
A person should contact a doctor if:
- they have symptoms of Crohn’s disease, such as frequent diarrhea or stomach pain
- the symptoms do not improve with Crohn’s treatment
- they develop new Crohn’s symptoms
- they think they may have a skin infection
- they cannot eat or drink without experiencing severe diarrhea
Crohn’s disease is a chronic illness, and doctors have not yet discovered a cure.
For many people, symptoms will change or progress with time, and skin symptoms may be part of their experience.
With the right treatment, however, it is usually possible to reduce the severity of symptoms or even send the disease into remission.