Although dental implant surgery (DIS) has a high success rate and may be good for some people, it is not suitable for everyone. It also has the potential to cause long-term complications.
This article outlines the potential complications and long-term issues that can result from DIS. It also provides information on implant success rates, aftercare, and recovery time.
A dental implant is a long-term replacement for a missing tooth. The implant is a titanium screw that a dental surgeon screws into the jawbone in place of the original tooth’s root.
Over a recovery period, the implant and jawbone fuse together. After fusing, the implant can support an artificial tooth or crown.
Dental implants can have several functional and cosmetic
- restoring the appearance of damaged teeth
- improving biting and chewing function
- stabilizing surrounding teeth and jaw tissue
- preventing bone loss
There are several potential complications that can occur following DIS. The sections below will outline some of these.
Below are some of the more common problems that may develop following DIS.
An infection at the implant site is the most
Treatment for an infection depends on the severity and location of the infection. For example, a bacterial infection in the gum may require antibiotics or a soft tissue graft. A bacterial infection in the bone may require removal of the infected bone tissue and possibly the implant, followed by a bone and soft tissue graft.
In some cases, a person may find that the gum tissue around the implant begins to recede. This can lead to inflammation and pain. Getting a prompt assessment from a dentist is essential to prevent the removal of the implant.
If the implant fails to fuse with the bone, the dental surgeon may remove it. A person may be able to reattempt the implant procedure once the area has healed.
Nerve or tissue damage
Sometimes, a dental surgeon may inadvertently place a dental implant too close to a nerve. This can cause numbness, tingling, or pain. Short-term symptoms are most common in dental implant surgery, but a person may experience long-term symptoms.
A nerve or tissue problem requires immediate attention. Injury to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) in the lower jaw can be
- persistent numbness on the side of the implant, including the lower lip and chin
- persistent pain or discomfort
- tingling, tickling, or burning sensations in the gums and skin
Less common problems
DIS may also result in some less common problems, such as sinus issues and damage to the dental implant itself.
Some potential symptoms of sinusitis include:
- pain, tenderness, or swelling around the cheeks, eyes, or forehead
- green or yellow nasal mucus
- a blocked nose
- a reduced sense of smell
- sinus headaches
- bad breath
- a high temperature
Damage from excessive force
As with any tooth, excessive force or impact can cause a dental implant to crack or become loose.
Some people may apply excessive force to dental implants without even realizing it. For example, some people grind, or brux, their teeth while sleeping. People who are prone to this behavior may need to wear a mouthguard to prevent damage to the implant as well as their natural teeth.
Peri-implantitis is a type of gum disease that causes loss of the bone supporting the implant. It develops due to chronic inflammation at the site of the implant.
According to one
There is also a rare possibility of the body rejecting a dental implant. Based on a 2019 review, researchers are investigating the risks of using dental implants made from titanium or other metals. Some people have a rare metal sensitivity that causes their body to reject metal implants. The researchers recommend that people undergo metal sensitivity testing before receiving such implants.
Dental implants are a good solution for people who are replacing teeth damaged by severe decay or trauma.
However, two potential problems regarding dental implants are suitability and success rate.
One key problem with dental implants is that they are not suitable for everyone.
To receive dental implants, a person must have
Dental implants are unsuitable for children, as their facial bones are still growing.
Sometimes, a dental implant may fail. Healthcare professionals categorize implant failure into one of two categories: early failure (which occurs shortly after the insertion of the implant) or late failure (which occurs after the implant has been in place for a period of time).
Dental implants have a success rate of around
The best way to ensure the success of a dental implant is to follow the aftercare advice the surgeon provides.
After undergoing DIS, a person should avoid hot food and drinks while numb and stick to a soft food diet for at least a few days.
As with a person’s natural teeth, an implant and the tissues surrounding it require regular cleaning. A person should floss the area at least once per day after the gums have healed and use interdental brushes to access areas that are more difficult to reach.
People should also schedule regular dental check-ups and appointments for cleaning areas below the gum line.
People who smoke may wish to consider quitting, as this will reduce the risk of complications from DIS.
Following DIS, a dentist may prescribe antibiotics to help prevent infection. A person may also require an over-the-counter or prescription pain reliever to help alleviate any pain.
Any swelling or bruising should subside within a few days of the surgery. However, if pain and swelling persist beyond a week, the person should book a follow-up dental appointment.
The process of initial healing takes a few weeks, and full osseointegration can take months. A person should seek medical attention if their dental implants begin to move slightly or continue to hurt after a few weeks. Addressing the problem is crucial to preventing complications.
Simple DIS usually only requires local anesthetics, so most people tend to have a relatively short recovery time.
However, some people may experience the following symptoms after DIS:
- pain at the site of the dental implant
- minor bleeding
- bruising of the gums or skin
- swelling of the gums or face
A dentist or oral surgeon will advise that the person gets plenty of rest following the procedure. They may also recommend a temporary diet of soft foods and the application of an ice pack to the affected part of the face to help alleviate inflammation and swelling.
Discomfort levels may vary from person to person and depending on the number of implants the surgeon placed. However, taking acetaminophen or ibuprofen should be sufficient to alleviate any pain. Pain medications are usually necessary for
The average time it takes for a person to heal after DIS varies, from around 2-6 months. Once healing is complete, the dental surgeon can place an artificial tooth onto the implant.
DIS is not suitable for everyone. A person will need to undergo an extensive dental examination by a surgeon to determine whether or not they are a suitable candidate for the procedure.
Dental implants have a high success rate of around 95%, and they lead to an increased quality of life for many people.
However, dental implants can cause complications, such as infections, gum recession, and nerve and tissue damage. A person should see their dental surgeon if they develop any worrying symptoms following DIS.