Cabenuva is a brand-name prescription medication that’s approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in certain adults with HIV. (HIV is a virus that attacks your immune system.) Cabenuva should be used only after your HIV has been successfully treated with other medications, and you have a low or undetectable level of HIV in your blood.

To learn more about the drug’s uses, see the “Cabenuva for HIV” section below.

Limitations of use

If you’ve tried other medications to treat your HIV (such as cabotegravir or rilpivirine) but they weren’t safe or effective, you shouldn’t use Cabenuva. Talk with your doctor to learn more.

Drug details

Cabenuva comes as a liquid solution in a single-dose vial. It’s given as an intramuscular injection (an injection into your muscle).

Cabenuva contains two active drug ingredients: cabotegravir and rilpivirine. These ingredients are in two separate injections that you’ll receive once per month. This medication comes in two strengths: 400 milligrams (mg) of cabotegravir/600 mg of rilpivirine and 600 mg of cabotegravir/900 mg of rilpivirine.

Cabotegravir belongs to a group of medications called integrase strand transfer inhibitors. Rilpivirine belongs to a group of drugs called non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

FDA approval

Cabenuva was first approved by the FDA in January 2021. It’s the first injectable medication approved for HIV that only needs to be given once per month. It gives people with HIV the option of receiving a once-monthly injection instead of taking pills each day.

At the same time it approved Cabenuva, the FDA also approved Vocabria, which is a tablet form of cabotegravir. There was already a pill form of rilpivirine (Edurant) available. Before starting treatment with Cabenuva, your doctor will prescribe Vocabria and Edurant for you. This is to make sure you don’t have any reactions to the medications before getting the injectable form.

For more information, see the “Cabenuva dosage” section below.

Effectiveness

For information about the effectiveness of Cabenuva, see the “Cabenuva for HIV” section below.

Cabenuva is available only as a brand-name medication. It’s not currently available in generic form.

A generic drug is an exact copy of the active drug in a brand-name medication. Generics usually cost less than brand-name drugs.

As with all medications, the cost of Cabenuva can vary. To find current prices for Cabenuva in your area, check out WellRx.com.

The cost you find on WellRx.com is what you may pay without insurance. The actual price you’ll pay depends on your insurance plan and your location.

Before approving coverage for Cabenuva, your insurance company may require you to get prior authorization. This means that your doctor and insurance company will need to communicate about your prescription before the insurance company will cover the drug. The insurance company will review the prior authorization request and decide if the drug will be covered.

If you’re not sure if you’ll need to get prior authorization for Cabenuva, contact your insurance company.

Financial and insurance assistance

If you need financial support to pay for Cabenuva, or if you need help understanding your insurance coverage, help is available.

ViiV Healthcare, the manufacturer of Cabenuva, offers a program called ViiV Connect. Through this program, you can find information about copay assistance, insurance coverage, and more.

For more information and to find out if you’re eligible for support, call 844-588-3288 or visit the program website.

Generic version

Cabenuva is not available in a generic form. A generic drug is an exact copy of the active drug in a brand-name medication. Generics tend to cost less than brand-name drugs.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves prescription drugs such as Cabenuva to treat certain conditions.

Cabenuva is a brand-name prescription medication that’s FDA-approved for use in certain adults with HIV. Cabenuva should be used only after your HIV has been successfully treated with other medications, and you have a low or undetectable level of HIV in your blood.

Your doctor will test your blood to see if you can use Cabenuva. If you have fewer than 50 copies of HIV in one milliliter of blood, Cabenuva may be an option for you.

There are also some other limitations on who can use Cabenuva. If you’ve tried other medications to treat your HIV (such as cabotegravir or rilpivirine) but they weren’t safe or effective, you shouldn’t use Cabenuva. Talk with your doctor to learn more.

About HIV

HIV is a virus that attacks your immune system. This causes your body to have less protection from illness or other diseases. With HIV, you have a higher risk for other infections or conditions (such as cancer) that your body may have otherwise been able to fight off.

Although there is no cure for HIV at this time, it’s important to take medications to help prevent it from getting worse or from transmitting it to others. If HIV goes untreated, it can turn into AIDS, which is a more severe immune system condition.

To learn more about HIV, visit the Medical News Today HIV/AIDS hub.

Effectiveness for HIV

Cabenuva is an effective treatment option for certain adults with HIV. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recommends Cabenuva as a treatment option for certain people who need to replace their current HIV treatment. Learn more about the recommendations from the HHS.

For more information on how Cabenuva performed in clinical studies, see its prescribing information.

Cabenuva and children

Cabenuva is not approved for use in children. The drug hasn’t been tested to see if it is safe or effective for children with HIV.

Cabenuva is a complete treatment regimen for HIV. This means it’s not taken with other HIV treatments. But you’ll need to take two drugs before you start your Cabenuva treatment.

Cabenuva injections contain two active ingredients: cabotegravir (Vocabria) and rilpivirine (Edurant). Before you get your first Cabenuva injection, you’ll take these two drugs by mouth once per day. Usually, this is done for at least 28 days before your first Cabenuva injection.

Taking these drugs by mouth before getting Cabenuva injections is important so your doctor can make sure you don’t have any reactions to the medications.

On the last day that you take Vocabria and Edurant, you‘ll get your first injection of Cabenuva.

Cabenuva is an injectable drug that’s used in certain adults with HIV.

Cabenuva is administered as two injections each month. One injection contains the drug cabotegravir and the other contains the drug rilpivirine. The two injections can be given at the same doctor’s appointment.

You may receive one injection on each side of your buttock muscle, or in some cases, both injections can be given on the same side.

When it’s given

You’ll get your first injection of Cabenuva on the last day that you take the cabotegravir (Vocabria) and rilpivirine (Edurant) tablets by mouth. (See the “Cabenuva use with other drugs” section above to learn more.) Then you’ll receive Cabenuva injections once per month.

You can get your injections within a 7-day time frame of when they’re due. That means you can get your dose of Cabenuva anytime 7 days before or 7 days after when you’re due for your injection, and the medication will still be effective.

Cabenuva works to decrease the amount of HIV in your blood, so it’s important to get your injections each month. Missing an appointment can cause the HIV levels in your blood to become very high. This can cause your HIV to get worse or may allow it to be transmitted to others.

To help make sure you don’t miss an injection appointment, try setting a reminder on your phone.

Taking Cabenuva with food

The manufacturer of Cabenuva hasn’t given specific recommendations about whether you should eat before receiving a Cabenuva injection. If you have questions about whether you should eat before an injection appointment, talk with your doctor.

The typical Cabenuva dosage your doctor will prescribe is two injections received at the same time, once per month.

Before you start using Cabenuva, your doctor will have you take cabotegravir (Vocabria) and rilpivirine (Edurant). These drugs come as tablets that you take by mouth. They’re taken once daily for the first 28 days of treatment. Then you’ll get your first dose of Cabenuva on the last day that you take the Vocabria and Edurant tablets.

The following information describes dosages that are commonly used or recommended. But be sure to take the dosage your doctor prescribes for you. Your doctor will determine the best dosage to fit your needs.

Drug forms and strengths

Cabenuva comes as a dosing kit that contains one dose of cabotegravir and one dose of rilpivirine. It comes in two strengths:

  • 400 milligrams (mg) of cabotegravir/600 mg of rilpivirine
  • 600 mg of cabotegravir/900 mg of rilpivirine

Dosage for HIV

Cabenuva is given as two injections into the buttock muscles once every month. It may be given as one injection on each side of your buttock muscle, or in some cases, it can be given on the same side. You will get both injections at the same appointment.

Your first dose of Cabenuva will be a higher dose of medication. You’ll receive one injection containing 600 mg of cabotegravir and a second injection with 900 mg of rilpivirine. Then after your first dose, you’ll usually get one injection containing 400 mg of cabotegravir and a second injection with 600 mg of rilpivirine per month.

Before you start your Cabenuva treatment, you’ll take other drugs by mouth for 1 month. See the “Cabenuva use with other drugs” section above to learn more.

What if I miss a dose?

Cabenuva works to decrease the amount of HIV in your blood, so it’s important to get your injections each month. Missing an appointment can cause the HIV levels in your blood to become very high. This can cause your HIV to get worse or may allow it to be transmitted to others.

You can get your injections within a 7-day time frame of when they’re due. That means you can get your dose of Cabenuva anytime 7 days before or 7 days after when you’re due for your injection, and the medication will still be effective.

If you need to reschedule your appointment for more than 7 days after your recommended due date, talk with your doctor. They may recommend that you switch back to the tablet forms of the medications cabotegravir (Vocabria) and rilpivirine (Edurant) to replace Cabenuva for up to 2 months.

If you miss a dose, your doctor may discuss whether Cabenuva is still a good treatment option for you. If you’ve missed your dose of Cabenuva for 2 months or less, your doctor will likely recommend making an appointment to get your dose as soon as possible.

If you’ve missed more than two doses in a row, your doctor will likely give you the initial dose of 600 mg of cabotegravir and 900 mg of rilpivirine. Then you’ll likely continue treatment with 400 mg of cabotegravir and 600 mg of rilpivirine.

To help make sure you don’t miss an injection appointment, try setting a reminder on your phone.

Will I need to use this drug long term?

Cabenuva is meant to be used as a long-term treatment. If you and your doctor determine that Cabenuva is safe and effective for you, you’ll likely take it long term.

Cabenuva can cause mild or serious side effects. The following lists contain some of the key side effects that may occur while taking Cabenuva. These lists do not include all possible side effects.

For more information about the possible side effects of Cabenuva, talk with your doctor or pharmacist. They can give you tips on how to deal with any side effects that may be concerning or bothersome.

Note: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tracks side effects of drugs it has approved. If you would like to notify the FDA about a side effect you’ve had with Cabenuva, you can do so through MedWatch.

Mild side effects

Mild side effects* of Cabenuva can include:

  • injection-site reactions†
  • fever
  • fatigue (lack of energy)
  • headache
  • muscle pain
  • nausea
  • dizziness
  • rash
  • insomnia (trouble sleeping)

Most of these side effects may go away within a few days or a couple of weeks. But if they become more severe or don’t go away, talk with your doctor or pharmacist.

* This is a partial list of mild side effects from Cabenuva. To learn about other mild side effects, talk with your doctor or pharmacist, or view Cabenuva’s patient information.
† To learn more about this side effect, see “Side effect details” below.

Serious side effects

Serious side effects from Cabenuva aren’t common, but they can occur. Call your doctor right away if you have serious side effects. Call 911 or your local emergency number if your symptoms feel life threatening or if you think you’re having a medical emergency.

Serious side effects and their symptoms can include:

For more information about each of these side effects, see “Side effect details” below.

Side effect details

Here’s some detail on certain side effects this drug may cause.

Injection-site reactions

After a Cabenuva injection, some people may experience an injection-site reaction. These reactions can be mild or serious, so it’s important to know the symptoms to watch for after your injection.

Injection-site reactions occur in the area where the medication was injected, which is usually in the buttocks. If you develop an injection-site reaction, you may experience symptoms at the site of injection such as:

  • pain or discomfort
  • lumps under the skin
  • swelling
  • redness or discoloration
  • itchiness
  • bruising
  • warmth

Let your doctor know if you experience any injection-site reactions. They may be able to recommend ways to help relieve these reactions, such as icing the injection area after your appointment.

Post-injection reactions

It’s also possible to develop a post-injection reaction. Most post-injection reactions should go away within a few minutes of the injection, but in some cases these reactions may be more serious. Symptoms of a post-injection reaction may include:

  • trouble breathing
  • stomach cramps
  • numbness in your mouth
  • feeling dizzy
  • changes in your blood pressure

Cabenuva injections are received at your doctor’s office. You’ll be monitored for about 10 minutes after your injection. If you experience any serious post-injection reactions, such as trouble breathing, tell your doctor right away. They can help treat your symptoms as soon as possible.

If you develop a rash after receiving a Cabenuva injection, call your doctor right away. A rash may be a sign of a more serious allergic reaction. See the “Allergic reaction” section below for more details.

Depression, mood changes, or both

Using Cabenuva may cause depression and/or mood changes in some people. This can include having mood swings, or having negative thoughts. In some serious cases, people taking Cabenuva have reported having suicidal thoughts or behaviors.

It’s important to tell your doctor right away if you’re experiencing symptoms of depression or mood changes, including:

  • feeling sad or hopeless
  • anxiety
  • thoughts of harming yourself

Your doctor can help determine if Cabenuva may be the cause of your depression or mood changes. In some cases, they may recommend a different treatment for your HIV. In other cases, they may monitor your mood more closely to watch for any changes.

If you have a history of depression or mood disorders, tell your doctor before you start using Cabenuva. They’ll likely monitor your mood more closely during your treatment.

Liver problems

It’s possible to develop liver problems during treatment with Cabenuva. Throughout your treatment, your doctor will check your liver through blood tests. If they notice any changes, they may recommend a different medication to treat your HIV.

If you have a history of liver problems or hepatitis, be sure to tell your doctor before you start using Cabenuva. They’ll likely recommend a different treatment option for you.

Symptoms of liver problems may include:

  • abdominal (belly) pain
  • jaundice (yellowing of the skin or whites of your eyes)
  • dark urine

If you notice any symptoms of liver problems during your Cabenuva treatment, call your doctor right away. They can help determine what’s causing the symptoms and either treat your condition or have you switch medications.

Allergic reaction

As with most drugs, some people can have an allergic reaction after taking Cabenuva.

Symptoms of a mild allergic reaction can include:

  • rash
  • itchiness
  • flushing (temporary warmth, redness, or deepening of skin color)

A more severe allergic reaction is rare but possible. Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction can include:

  • swelling under your skin, typically in your eyelids, lips, hands, or feet
  • swelling of your tongue, mouth, or throat
  • trouble breathing

If you develop a rash after your dose of Cabenuva, tell a doctor right away. A rash may be a sign of a serious allergic reaction. Also be sure to tell your doctor if you experience any additional symptoms such as fever, tiredness, muscle or joint pain, blisters, or swelling. These may also be signs of serious allergic reactions. In this case, tell your doctor right away. They will likely have you stop treatment with Cabenuva and try a different medication to treat your HIV.

Call your doctor right away if you have an allergic reaction to Cabenuva, as the reaction could become severe. Call 911 or your local emergency number if your symptoms feel life threatening or if you think you’re having a medical emergency.

There are no known interactions between Cabenuva and alcohol.

But Cabenuva and alcohol may both cause liver problems. If you drink alcohol, talk with your doctor about how much is safe for you to drink during your Cabenuva treatment.

Cabenuva can interact with several other medications. It can also interact with certain supplements. The drug is not known to interact with any foods.

Different interactions can cause different effects. For instance, some interactions can interfere with how well a drug works. Other interactions can increase side effects or make them more severe.

Cabenuva and other medications

Below is a list of medications that can interact with Cabenuva. This list does not contain all drugs that may interact with Cabenuva.

Before using Cabenuva, talk with your doctor and pharmacist. Tell them about all prescription, over-the-counter, and other drugs you take. Also tell them about any vitamins, herbs, and supplements you use. Sharing this information can help you avoid potential interactions.

If you have questions about drug interactions that may affect you, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

Other HIV medications. You shouldn’t use any other HIV medications during your Cabenuva treatment. Cabenuva is considered a complete treatment, which means it can be used alone. Before using Cabenuva, talk with your doctor about how to stop your other HIV treatments before starting Cabenuva. Examples of other HIV medications include:

  • bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (Biktarvy)
  • dolutegravir/lamivudine/abacavir (Triumeq)
  • efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Atripla)
  • rilpivirine/emtricitabine tenofovir alafenamide (Odefsey)
  • darunavir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide

Drugs that affect your heart rhythm. Taking Cabenuva with drugs that may affect your heart rhythm can cause an irregular heart rhythm, such as long QT syndrome. In some cases, your doctor may monitor you more closely for side effects during your Cabenuva treatment. In other cases, they may recommend a different medication that doesn’t interact with Cabenuva. Examples of some medications that can affect your heart rhythm include:

  • azithromycin (Zithromax)
  • clarithromycin
  • erythromycin (Eryc)
  • ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
  • escitalopram (Lexapro)
  • fluconazole (Diflucan)
  • haloperidol (Haldol)
  • methadone

Anticonvulsants. You should not use Cabenuva if you’re taking certain anticonvulsant medications (a type of seizure medication). Examples of anticonvulsants include:

  • carbamazepine (Tegretol)
  • oxcarbazepine (Trileptal)
  • phenobarbital
  • phenytoin (Dilantin)

Antibiotics. Certain antibiotics may interact with Cabenuva.

  • Examples of antibiotics that should not be taken with Cabenuva include:
    • rifampin (Rimactane, Rifadin)
    • rifapentine (Priftin)
    • rifabutin (Mycobutin)
  • Examples of other antibiotics that can interact with Cabenuva include:
    • azithromycin (Zithromax)
    • clarithromycin
    • erythromycin (Eryc)

Dexamethasone. You shouldn’t take more than one dose of dexamethasone during your Cabenuva treatment. If you need to take dexamethasone, tell your doctor that you’re using Cabenuva. If you need more than one dose, they may recommend a different steroid medication for you.

Methadone. If you’re taking methadone, tell your doctor before you start your Cabenuva treatment. In some cases, your doctor may need to change your methadone dosage while you’re using Cabenuva.

Cabenuva and herbs and supplements

During your Cabenuva treatment, you shouldn’t use St. John’s wort. This herb decreases the amount of rilpivirine in your body. Rilpivirine is one of the drugs in Cabenuva. So using Cabenuva with St. John’s wort may make Cabenuva less effective. Your doctor will likely recommend that you stop using St. John’s wort when you start your Cabenuva treatment.

Cabenuva and foods

There aren’t any foods that have been specifically reported to interact with Cabenuva. If you have any questions about eating certain foods with Cabenuva, talk with your doctor.

Cabenuva is a prescription drug that’s used to treat HIV in certain adults.

About HIV

HIV is a virus that attacks your immune system. This causes your body to have less protection from illness or other diseases. With HIV, you have a higher risk for other infections or conditions (such as cancer) that your body may have otherwise been able to fight off.

Although there is no cure for HIV at this time, it’s important to take medications to help prevent it from getting worse. If HIV goes untreated, it can turn into AIDS, which is a more severe immune system condition.

To learn more about HIV, visit the Medical News Today HIV/AIDS hub.

What Cabenuva does

Cabenuva contains two active drugs: cabotegravir and rilpivirine. Cabotegravir belongs to a group of medications called integrase strand transfer inhibitors. Rilpivirine belongs to a group of drugs called non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

These medications work differently to attack HIV and help prevent the virus from getting worse. Both of these drugs block the HIV virus from replicating in your body, which decreases the symptoms you experience from HIV.

How long does it take to work?

Cabenuva is a long-acting medication, so it may take some time to begin working. But it’s unlikely that you’ll notice the drug working in your body.

The medication will start working a few days after your injection. It will continue to keep the levels of HIV in your blood low or undetectable.

It’s not known if Cabenuva is safe to take while pregnant. At this time, there isn’t enough data on the safety of Cabenuva during pregnancy.

Cabenuva contains the active drugs cabotegravir and rilpivirine. A medication similar to cabotegravir, called dolutegravir, may be associated with a risk of developmental issues for a fetus when used during pregnancy.

Animal studies showed that cabotegravir may increase the risk of stillbirths or neonatal death (death occurring in the first 4 weeks of life). No effects on a fetus were reported in animal studies of rilpivirine. It’s important to note that animal studies don’t always predict what will happen in humans.

Cabenuva can remain in your body for 12 months or longer after your dose. So if you’re planning to become pregnant in the next year, talk with your doctor about the best plan for your HIV treatment.

If you’re pregnant or planning to become pregnant, talk with your doctor before using Cabenuva. They may monitor you more often throughout your pregnancy, or they may recommend a different treatment option for you.

If you do use Cabenuva during pregnancy, consider enrolling in the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry. This registry gathers information about the use of certain HIV drugs during pregnancy. Your doctor can enroll you in the pregnancy registry by calling 1-800-258-4263 or by visiting the registry website.

It’s not known if Cabenuva is safe to take during pregnancy. If you’re sexually active and you or your partner can become pregnant, talk with your doctor about your birth control needs while you’re using Cabenuva.

For more information about taking Cabenuva during pregnancy, see the “Cabenuva and pregnancy” section above.

It’s unknown whether it’s safe to breastfeed while using Cabenuva. No animal or human studies have looked at whether this drug passes into breast milk or if it would have any effect on a child who is breastfed.

But the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) do not recommend breastfeeding if you have HIV. This is because a child who is breastfed can be exposed to HIV through breast milk and can become infected this way.

Here are answers to some frequently asked questions about Cabenuva.

Why do I need to take HIV medications by mouth before starting and after stopping Cabenuva?

Cabenuva injections contain two active ingredients: cabotegravir (Vocabria) and rilpivirine (Edurant). Before you get your first Cabenuva injection, you’ll take these two drugs by mouth once per day. Usually, this is done for at least 28 days before your first Cabenuva injection.

You’ll take these drugs by mouth before getting Cabenuva injections to make sure you don’t have any reactions to the medications. This is important, as Cabenuva can stay in your body for up to 12 months.

But even though Cabenuva can remain in your body for up to 12 months, the amount of medication decreases over time. So if you stop taking Cabenuva, you should start taking another HIV medication by mouth after 1 month. This is so your HIV is still being treated correctly.

If you miss an appointment to receive a Cabenuva injection, your doctor may recommend that you take cabotegravir (Vocabria) and rilpivirine (Edurant) by mouth. You can substitute injections with Vocabria and Edurant for up to 2 months.

If you’re switching medications, your doctor may recommend that you begin a different treatment 1 month after your last dose of Cabenuva. If Cabenuva stops working for you, your doctor may recommend that you begin using other medications as soon as possible.

If you have any questions about other drugs you’ll take before or after Cabenuva, talk with your doctor or pharmacist.

Will I need to have lab tests or other monitoring done during my Cabenuva treatment?

Yes, your doctor will monitor you throughout your Cabenuva treatment. First, your doctor will monitor the level of HIV in your blood to see how well the medication is working for you.

Because Cabenuva can cause liver problems, your doctor will monitor you for symptoms of liver problems and will check your liver function through blood tests.

During your treatment, your doctor will also monitor you for other side effects of the drug, such as depression or changes in mood.

After each injection, you’ll also be monitored for at least 10 minutes to make sure you don’t experience any post-injection reactions. For more information about side effects that Cabenuva may cause, see the “Cabenuva side effects” section above.

Should I take other HIV medications while I’m using Cabenuva?

No, you should not take other HIV medications while you’re using Cabenuva, unless directed by your doctor. Cabenuva is considered a complete treatment, which means it works to treat your HIV alone. So you don’t need to take any other HIV medications along with Cabenuva.

If Cabenuva isn’t working for you, your doctor may switch you to another medication for your HIV. If you have any questions about your HIV treatment plan, talk with your doctor or pharmacist.

Before using Cabenuva, talk with your doctor about your health history. Cabenuva may not be right for you if you have certain medical conditions or other factors affecting your health. These include:

  • Liver problems. Cabenuva may cause liver problems. If you have a history of liver problems, such as hepatitis, be sure to tell your doctor before starting Cabenuva. Using Cabenuva can make your liver problems worse. Your doctor may monitor your liver function more closely during your Cabenuva treatment, or they may recommend a different treatment for your HIV.
  • Depression or mood problems. Cabenuva can cause depression or changes in your mood. If you have a history of depression or other mental health conditions, Cabenuva may make your condition worse. Before starting Cabenuva, talk with your doctor about any mental health concerns you have. Your doctor may monitor your mental health more closely during your Cabenuva treatment, or they may recommend a different treatment option for you.
  • Allergic reaction. If you’ve had a rash or an allergic reaction to Cabenuva or any of its ingredients, you shouldn’t take Cabenuva. Ask your doctor which other medications may be better options for you.
  • Pregnancy. It’s not known if Cabenuva is safe to use during pregnancy. For more information, see the “Cabenuva and pregnancy” section above.
  • Breastfeeding. You should not breastfeed if you have HIV. For more information, see the “Cabenuva and breastfeeding” section above.

Note: For more information about the potential negative effects of Cabenuva, see the “Cabenuva side effects” section above.

Disclaimer: Medical News Today has made every effort to make certain that all information is factually correct, comprehensive, and up to date. However, this article should not be used as a substitute for the knowledge and expertise of a licensed healthcare professional. You should always consult your doctor or other healthcare professional before taking any medication. The drug information contained herein is subject to change and is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. The absence of warnings or other information for a given drug does not indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for all patients or all specific uses.