hCG is a hormone that plays an important role in pregnancy, and levels can vary widely at this time and between individuals. Outside pregnancy, a high hCG level may be a sign of a health condition, such as cancer or liver disease.
The full name of this hormone is human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).
In this article, we look at hCG in detail — including normal ranges during pregnancy, what happens when levels fluctuate, and how doctors use the measurements to identify underlying health conditions.
This naturally occurring hormone is present in
To maintain a pregnancy, hCG triggers the body to produce another hormone, progesterone. It can also help:
promotethe development of new blood vessels in the uterus smooththe muscle cells in the middle layer of the uterine wall, which is important for maintaining pregnancy
A doctor can also check for pregnancy by ordering a blood test to measure hCG levels.
Testing the level of hCG in the blood can also help a doctor identify certain underlying health conditions, including some cancers, and check how effective cancer treatment is.
Levels of hCG can vary
A test gives an hCG measurement in units per liter (U/l).
Below, find typical levels of hCG throughout pregnancy:
|Week since last menstrual period||Standard hCG range (U/l)|
During the first
Levels of the hormone typically peak at around 10 weeks, decline until 16 weeks, then remain constant.
During pregnancy, low levels of hCG are not always a cause for concern. This finding may only indicate that there could be a health issue to investigate.
Other times, low hCG can point to a more serious problem. According to a
Low hCG can also indicate that the fetus is not growing appropriately. A
There is no treatment for hCG levels that are low.
As with low levels, high levels of hCG do not necessarily indicate a problem with a pregnancy. Some women simply have higher levels.
If a woman has high hCG levels, it could point to twins or triplets, though only a scan can confirm this.
Sometimes, above-average levels of hCG indicate a
Gestational trophoblastic disease
One medical concern about
GTD can occur during or after pregnancy. It causes abnormal cells to grow in the uterus. Some can be cancerous, though
Treatment depends on the mass of cells and whether it is cancerous or benign.
To remove the mass, the doctor may recommend dilation and curettage, which involves sucking away the mass with a surgical vacuum and gently scraping away any remaining abnormal cells.
Or, a doctor may recommend a hysterectomy, to remove the uterus.
After the removal, a person may need chemotherapy or other treatment. This may be more likely if hCG levels remain high.
High hCG levels may also indicate preeclampsia, a pregnancy-linked condition that involves swelling and a sudden rise in blood pressure.
In a 2012 study, for example, researchers found that hCG levels were significantly increased in women with severe preeclampsia.
It may be safe for a woman with mild preeclampsia to wait and deliver as usual. But if a woman develops the condition and the pregnancy is at
Normal levels of hCG are typically undetectable in females who are not pregnant and in males.
- some cancers, including cancer of the liver, stomach, pancreas, lung, breast, or skin
- germ cell tumors of the ovary and testicles, which may be benign or malignant
- stomach ulcers
- inflammatory bowel disease
Pregnant women experiencing vaginal bleeding or abdominal cramps should receive medical attention.
Everyone should see a doctor if they:
- are having difficulty conceiving
- notice a lump in their breasts or testicles
- have blood in their urine, stool, vomit, or phlegm
- have a cough that does not go away, breathlessness, or chest pain
- notice changes in bowel movements
- have unexplained weight loss
- notice skin changes, such as moles that change shape or bleed
HCG is a hormone that everyone has.
It plays a key role in pregnancy, during which levels rise significantly. Especially high or low levels during pregnancy can indicate a problem, but this is not always the case.
In other people, high levels of hCG sometimes indicate an underlying health condition, possibly one that affects fertility.