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A new study shows that diastolic blood pressure may lead to neuroticism, which is associated with anxiety and mood disorders. VISUALSPECTRUM/Stocksy
  • Blood pressure is a crucial component of health, with high blood pressure linked to an increased risk for serious physical health conditions.
  • How blood pressure might impact other areas of well-being, such as mental and psychosocial health, is not fully understood.
  • A new study shows that diastolic blood pressure may contribute to neuroticism. People with this personality type are more prone to anxiety and the development of other mood disorders.
  • Blood pressure management may help in managing neuroticism-induced mood disorders.

The relationship between physical and mental health is an area of continuous study.

One area of interest is how high blood pressure may impact mental health outcomes like anxiety and depression.

A new study recently published in General Psychiatry found that diastolic blood pressure may have a causal effect on neuroticism.

This personality trait can contribute to anxiety and mood disorders. The study opens up the possibility for further research into this complex relationship.

Blood pressure involves the force of blood being pumped by the heart throughout the body.

There are two main readings for it: the systolic pressure and the diastolic pressure.

The systolic pressure is a measurement of when the heart is contracting. The diastolic pressure measures when the heart is at rest.

High blood pressure can be dangerous and is a risk factor for more severe health problems, including stroke, vision loss, and heart failure. Researchers are still working to understand how blood pressure affects components of mental health and mental illness.

Researchers in this particular study were interested in how blood pressure influenced neuroticism. David Tzall, Psy.D., a licensed psychologist not involved in the study, offered insight into the neurotic personality type:

“Neuroticism covers many different parts of a personality, and it does not necessarily encompass one thing. Those with higher scores of neuroticism are likely to be more sensitive to their emotions or situations, worry a disproportionate amount to a situation, and have high rates of anxiety. While some people may view neuroticism as negative, it is neither good nor bad. Neuroticism has many adaptive qualities and can be of great use to someone. It is viewed with a negative perception, but this is not accurate.”

Neuroticism is not a mental health disorder — but people with this personality type are more prone to negative emotions and changes in mood.

Neuroticism may also be a risk factor for mental illnesses like anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and mood disorders.

For the present study, researchers wanted to see if they could identify a causal relationship between four components of blood pressure (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and hypertension) and four psychological states (anxiety, depression, neuroticism, and subjective well-being).

Researchers utilized a unique technique called Mendelian randomization in their work. This method looks at gene variants to help determine if a specific factor causes a particular outcome. This is a way to indirectly study cause in a way that does not harm study participants. The authors used genome-wide association studies to collect their data.

Most of the factors examined did not become significant. The main exceptions were the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and neuroticism.

The results indicated that diastolic blood pressure has a “genetic causal effect on neuroticism.”

Based on these findings, the researchers note that “appropriate management of BP may reduce neuroticism, neuroticism-inducing mood disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.”

Dr. Melody Hermel, a cardiologist with United Medical Doctors in Southern California, not involved in the study, shared her thoughts on the research with Medical News Today:

“Prior studies have noted an association between anxiety disorders and hypertension. The strengths of this trial include the use of GWAS [Genome-wide association studies] datasets with large sample sizes. In general, the association between DBP [diastolic blood pressure] and neuroticism aligns with our understanding of the deleterious effects of stress on the body.”

T​his study indicates the need for more research into the relationship between mental health, emotions, and blood pressure.

I​t does have several limitations due to the nature of the study and its research methods. Researchers primarily used genetic information from European populations. This indicates the need for more diverse follow-ups.

Researchers also acknowledged the possibility of bias in results regarding psychological characteristics causing the blood pressure characteristics.

T​here is also the possibility that a gene influenced more than one characteristic (pleiotrophy). Dr. Hermel further noted her thoughts on continued research in this area:

“The specific causal relationship between DBP [diastolic blood pressure] and neuroticism is a bit difficult to tease out. As the authors note, neuroticism is a complex trait, and studying it independently from anxiety and depression may produce bias. In the era of machine learning, one might consider an advanced analysis clustering features of anxiety-based disorders to better understand their relationship with hypertension.”

This study adds to a growing body of evidence that controlling blood pressure to keep it in a healthy range is essential.

The findings suggest that control of blood pressure may influence other areas of well-being, like mental and emotional health.

Thus, taking steps to control blood pressure could be essential to maintaining emotional well-being and may help curb some of the effects of neuroticism.

Controlling blood pressure can involve both lifestyle modifications and sometimes the use of medications.

“Managing blood pressure requires a multifaceted approach that combines adequate monitoring, lifestyle changes, and sometimes medications,” Dr. Jim Liu, a cardiologist at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, not involved in the study, told MNT.

Dr. Liu explained that the first step to managing blood pressure involves monitoring blood pressure levels, typically at home and at doctor’s visits.

“If blood pressure is high, lifestyle measures are usually recommended, such as weight loss, adhering to a low sodium diet, and exercising,” Dr. Liu said.

“If blood pressure medications are necessary, it’s important to take these as instructed and to maintain regular follow-up with healthcare [professionals].”