Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among females in the United States. Researchers across the globe are working to find new and improved ways to prevent, detect, and treat breast cancer.
According to the
The American Cancer Society (ACS) notes that approximately
However, due to increased awareness and advances in screening, treatment, and management, death rates from breast cancer decreased by
This article discusses the history of breast cancer and explains how awareness, screening, and treatment have evolved throughout the years.
According to an article in the journal
There were many theories about the causes of breast cancer. The sections below look at some of these theories in more detail.
Although theories varied from expert to expert, both Hippocrates and Galen attributed the development of breast cancer to an “excess of black bile.”
Hippocrates also believed that the body consisted of four fluids: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. When these were balanced, a person was healthy. Having too much or too little of one or more of these fluids, however, would cause disease or cancer.
This idea persisted for
Eventually, the lymph theory replaced Hippocrates’ humoral theory.
The lymph theory proposed that lymph, not bile, formed cancer. Lymph is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body.
In the 1700s, Scottish surgeon John Hunter supported the theory and agreed that tumors grew from lymph.
In 1838, a German pathologist named Johannes Müller pushed against the lymph theory. Müller believed that cancer consisted of cells, not lymph.
Müller’s student Rudolf Virchow determined that all cells, even cancerous cells, derived from other cells.
Other theories included the following:
- Chronic irritation theory: Virchow thought that chronic irritation caused cancer. He also incorrectly believed that cancer spread similarly to liquid. However, in the 1860s, a German surgeon called Karl Thiersch noted that cancer travels around the body due to malignant cells spreading.
- Trauma theory: From the late 1800s to the 1920s, some people thought that trauma caused cancer.
- Infectious disease theory: In the 1500s, two doctors in Holland thought that cancer was contagious. Some people held this belief throughout the 17th and 18th centuries.
Other theories, including those above, followed Virchow’s discovery.
Breast cancer awareness was not a part of mainstream media until the early
In the early 1970s, surgeons performed radical mastectomies routinely. Back then, surgeons considered radical mastectomies “life saving” procedures. However, when Babette Rosmond — the then-editor of Seventeen magazine — found a lump in her breast, she pushed for alternative treatment.
Rosmond became the first person to publicly challenge breast cancer treatment. This encouraged other people with breast cancer to speak up, fueling the need for more research and funding.
In the 19th century, advancing technologies provided hope for breast cancer treatment and research. The following are a few milestones worth noting:
William Halstedperforms the first radical mastectomy to treat breast cancer.
- 1895: Physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
discovers the first X-ray.
- 1896: George T. Beatson
performs the firstovarian ablation for breast cancer treatment.
- 1932: David H. Patey
develops the modified radical mastectomy.
- 1937: Sir Geoffrey Keynes recommends radiation therapy in addition to surgery to spare the breast.
- 1976: The
ACS recommendsmammography as an early detection tool.
- 1978: The
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)approves tamoxifen (Nolvadex) as a treatment option for breast cancer.
Researchers discoverthe human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene, which is linked to more aggressive breast cancer when overexpressed.
- 1986: Scientists
successfully clonethe HER2 gene.
- 1992: Evelyn H. Lauder co-creates the pink ribbon to create awareness for breast cancer.
A group of researchersdiscovers BRCA1 and BRCA2. People with mutated BRCA genes may have a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
- 1996: The
FDA approvesanastrozole (Arimidex) as a treatment option for breast cancer.
- 1998: Findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Breast Cancer Prevention Trial show that tamoxifen reduces the incidence of breast cancer in at-risk individuals by
- 1998: The FDA approves trastuzumab (Herceptin) as a treatment option for breast cancer.
- 2006: Research indicates that raloxifene (Evista) reduces breast cancer risk in postmenopausal people by
- 2011: The Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group meta-analysis suggests that radiation therapy
reduces the riskof breast cancer recurrence to 16% and mortality to 4%.
- 2013: The
FDA approvesado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) to treat HER2-positive breast cancer.
- 2013: Experts define breast cancer by
- hormone receptor (HR)-positive/HER2-negative (luminal A)
- HR-negative/HER2-negative (triple-negative)
- HR-positive/HER2-positive (luminal B)
- HR-negative/HER2-positive (HER2-enriched)
- 2017: The
FDA approvesthe first biosimilar drug, trastuzumab-dkst (Ogivri), for breast cancer treatment.
- 2019: The
FDA approvesfam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki (Enhertu) for breast cancer treatment, as it shows promise in people with HER2-positive breast cancer.
- 2020: The
FDA approvessacituzumab govitecan-hziy (Trodelvy) for treating metastatic triple-negative breast cancer.
Today, healthcare professionals know that breast cancer has subtypes, each of which has a different effect on the body.
Having this deeper understanding of how breast cancer works has led to more personalized treatment options and improved quality of life for both patients and breast cancer survivors.
- Surgery: This removes cancerous tissue. There are different types of breast cancer surgeries, including mastectomies and lumpectomies.
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy for breast cancer can shrink and kill cancer cells.
- Hormonal therapy: This treatment blocks cancer cells from accessing the hormones they require to grow.
- Biological therapy: Biological therapy works alongside the immune system to fight cancer cells. One example is immunotherapy.
- Radiation therapy: This uses high energy rays to kill cancer cells.
Special laboratory tests, including liquid biopsies and new imaging tests, are leading the way to quicker and less invasive breast cancer detection.
- scintimammography, which is a form of molecular breast imaging
- positron emission mammography
- electrical impedance imaging
Advances in modern technology not only allow doctors to detect breast cancer earlier. They also give them the ability to determine who needs chemotherapy and who does not.
According to the ACS, there are more than
Although it is not currently possible to prevent breast cancer, there are ways to
Breast cancer research has come a long way since the discovery of the condition, but there is still so much more to learn about how it forms and how to treat it effectively.
For now, early detection is the key to successfully treating breast cancer. Performing regular breast self-exams and undergoing routine screenings are two ways to go about