HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system. The virus can transmit from person to person through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, or vaginal fluids. If left untreated, HIV can progress to AIDS.

HIV is a lifelong condition, but treatments and strategies can prevent the virus from transmitting and the infection from progressing into AIDS.

This article discusses the different types of laws relating to HIV in the U.S. and outlines the many state-specific laws surrounding the virus.

For more in-depth information and resources on HIV and AIDS, visit our dedicated hub.

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When the HIV epidemic began in the United States in the 80s, many states put in place laws designed to discourage behaviors that may expose another person to HIV. These laws could remove a person’s right to privacy about their medical condition and even criminalize someone with HIV for engaging in behaviors that could put another person at risk for contracting the virus.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), many of the laws came into effect when the medical community knew very little about HIV, which some laws reflect. Laws may criminalize or punish acts that the medical community now understands do not cause transmission, such as spitting or biting a person.

Some laws have also not changed accordingly since antiretroviral therapy (ART) became more prevalent. If ART can suppress the viral load sufficiently, a person has effectively no risk of transmitting HIV through sexual acts.

While some states have adapted to new understanding and changed their laws based on new information, the CDC confirms that some states still have outdated laws based on the current understanding of HIV.

Beyond the laws themselves, areas with these laws may have other difficulties. The fear of these laws may encourage a stigma around HIV or discourage people from testing for HIV, which could have risks of its own.

Privacy

In general, a person has the right to keep medical information about themselves, such as their HIV status, personal, private, and confidential.

Federal acts such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) protect an individual’s health information, which includes medical information such as their HIV status.

Other state-specific laws may offer similar protections for HIV specifically.

However, there are limitations to this privacy. For example, HIPAA only protects health information shared between healthcare professionals and patients. Any other source or information would not fall under this protection.

Additionally, states may have other laws surrounding criminalization, testing, and privacy the person may also have to adhere to.

Criminalizing HIV exposure

As of 2021, 35 states still have laws that criminalize HIV exposure.

There are four different categories of laws for HIV exposure that a state may have:

  1. Laws that aim to control behaviors around or criminalize exposing a person to HIV specifically.
  2. Laws that aim to control behaviors around or criminalize exposing a person to STDs or infectious disease, which may include HIV.
  3. Laws that enhance certain punishments for a person with STDs or HIV specifically.
  4. A lack of specific laws for criminalization.

Each state may have laws that fall into more than one category. Additionally, some general statutes such as reckless endangerment may be used to apply to HIV exposure and criminalize the behavior that way.

State laws may go beyond federal or medical confidentiality laws in cases of HIV. A person may not be entitled to medical confidentiality in these states or be legally bound to disclose their HIV status.

According to the CDC, at least nine states have either removed or updated their HIV criminalization laws, including:

  • California
  • Colorado
  • Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Michigan
  • Missouri
  • Nevada
  • North Carolina
  • Virginia

Updates to these laws may remove the criminalization of HIV except in specific circumstances, such as intending to transmit HIV to another person.

Anonymous testing

Some states have laws that cover a person’s right to anonymous testing for HIV in particular. Under these laws, a person may get testing for HIV without attaching the test results directly to their name or other personally-identifying information.

This may only apply at specific locations, and not every testing location will offer anonymous testing.

Confidential testing

Confidential testing is different from anonymous testing, and confidential testing is not truly anonymous. Confidential testing attaches a person’s name and other identifying information to their test results. The results will go in a person’s medical file, and both doctors and healthcare insurance companies may see the information.

A confidential test released to the state or local health department will have a person’s name attached to it. The state department then removes the identifying information and sends the results to the CDC for national estimates.

Informed consent laws

States also have laws about informed consent. Informed consent is the process of getting permission from a patient before a medical procedure, involving the person in research, or disclosing any of the patient’s information. This can also apply to their HIV status or testing.

Partner notification

Some states have laws requiring those who are HIV positive to inform their HIV status to sexual partners or those they would share needles with. Knowingly withholding their status from a partner may cause them to face legal action.

Some states also have “duty to warn” laws, laws that require healthcare staff to notify a third party, such as a sexual partner, if they know a person is HIV positive.

Employment laws

An employer will not need to know about a person’s HIV status in most cases. However, employers do have the right to ask certain questions, such as if a person has any conditions that would affect their ability to do the job.

In some cases, these questions may apply to HIV, such as people working in healthcare where there is a risk of exchanging blood or bodily fluids. An employer may be within their right to ask about HIV status in these cases, and being untruthful about HIV status may cause the person to lose their job or even face legal ramifications.

Apart from these specific instances, the Americans with Disabilities Act does cover all people with HIV, meaning an employer cannot discriminate against someone based on their HIV status so long as it does not interfere with how a person performs in their job.

Laws for minors

There are some uniform laws surrounding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and confidentiality, but these may not apply to HIV. For example, all 50 states have laws protecting a minor’s right to receive STD testing without parental consent. However, some states may not extend this right to HIV. Additionally, healthcare professionals may still inform a minor’s parents about the minor’s HIV status.

The laws surrounding HIV can vary widely from state to state. While federal laws may protect a person’s privacy to a degree, state laws may not offer these same protections.

The following tables are adapted from the CDC and outline the many state-specific laws surrounding HIV. It is important to note that laws are subject to change and may not always be current.

Anyone wanting to understand the specific laws in their state or county should contact a state health department to discuss specific state laws.

Alabama

Alaska

HIV/STD criminalizationALASKA STAT. §12.55.155(C)(33)
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesAS §25.20.010
AS §25.20.025
Perinatal HIV testing
HIV testing in the general populationALASKA STAT. § 18.15.375
ALASKA STAT. § 18.15.380
Laboratory reporting lawsAlaska Admin. Code tit. 7, § 27.007
Other confidentiality lawsAlaska Admin.Code tit. 7 § 27.893

Arizona

Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesR.S. §1-215
R.S. §44-132.01
R.S. §36-661
R.S. §36-663
Perinatal HIV testing
HIV testing in the general populationARIZ. REV. STAT. ANN. § 36-663
A.A.C. R9-6-1001
Laboratory reporting lawsAriz. Admin Code foll R-9-6-204, Tbl. 2.3
Other confidentiality lawsR.S. §36-664

Arkansas

HIV/STD criminalizationARK CODE ANN. §5-14-123
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesAR ADC 007.15.2-XXI
A.C.A. § 20-9-602
A.C.A. § 20-16-508
A.C.A. § 9-25-101
Perinatal HIV testingA.C.A. §20-16-507(a)(1)(A)
HIV testing in the general populationARK. CODE ANN. § 20-15-905
Laboratory reporting lawsArk. Admin. Code 007.15.2-V
Other confidentiality lawsARK. CODE ANN. § 20-15-904

California

Colorado

HIV/STD criminalization
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesC.R.S.A. §13-22-101
C.R.S.A. §13-22-105
C.R.S.A. §25-4-409
C.R.S.A. § 25-4-402
C.R.S.A. § 13-22-103
Perinatal HIV testingC.R.S.A. §25-4-201
C.R.S.A. §25-4-203
HIV testing in the general populationCOLO. REV. STAT. § 25-4-1405
COLO. REV. STAT. § 25-4-410
Laboratory reporting laws6 CCR 1009-1 Appendix A
Other confidentiality laws6 CCR 1009-4-IV

Connecticut

HIV/STD criminalization
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesC.G.S.A. §19a-582
C.G.S.A. §19a-216
C.G.S.A. §19a-592
C.G.S.A. §1-1d
Perinatal HIV testingC.G.S.A. §19a-90
C.G.S.A. §19a-55
C.G.S.A. §19a-593
C.G.S.A. §19a-582
Regs. Conn. State Agencies §19a-55-2
HIV testing in the general populationC.G.S.A. §19a-582
Laboratory reporting lawsRegs. Conn. State Agencies § 19a-36-A2
Other confidentiality lawsC.G.S.A. §19a-583

Delaware

HIV/STD criminalization
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD services1 Del.C. §701
13 Del.C. §707
13 Del.C. §710
16 Del.C. §710
16 Del.C. §715
Perinatal HIV testing16 Del. C. §716
24 Del. Admin. Code 1795-6.0
HIV testing in the general populationDEL. CODE ANN. TIT. 16, § 715
Laboratory reporting laws16 Del. Admin. Code 4202-7.0
Other confidentiality laws16 Del.C. §717

District of Columbia

HIV/STD criminalization
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesDC ST §46-101
22-B DCMR §600
22-B DCMR §603
22-B DCMR §602.6
Perinatal HIV testing
HIV testing in the general populationDC ST § 31-2803
Laboratory reporting law22-B DCMR § 211
Other confidentiality lawsDC Code § 7–1605

Florida

Georgia

Hawaii

HIV/STD criminalization
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesHRS §577A-2
HRS §577A-1
HRS §577-1
HRS §577A-3
Perinatal HIV testing
HIV testing in the general populationHAW. REV. STAT. ANN. § 325-16
Laboratory reporting lawsHaw. Admin. Rules (HAR) § 11-156-Exhibit B
Other confidentiality lawsHRS §325-101

Idaho

HIV/STD criminalizationIDAHO CODE ANN. §39-601
IDAHO CODE ANN. §39-608
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesI.C. §39-3801
I.C. §32-101
I.C. §18-603
I.C. §39-4503
IDAPA 16.05.01.241
Perinatal HIV testing
HIV testing in the general population
Laboratory reporting lawsIDAPA 16.02.10.050
IDAPA 16.02.10.100
Other confidentiality lawsI.C. §39-610
I.C. §39-606

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

HIV/STD criminalizationI.C.A. §709D.3
I.C.A. §709D.2
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesI.C.A. §139A.35
I.C.A. §141A.7
Iowa Admin. Code 641-11.3(139A,141A)
I.C.A. §599.1
Perinatal HIV testingI.C.A. §141A.4
Iowa Admin. Code 641-11.4(141A)
HIV testing in the general populationIOWA CODE ANN. § 141A.6
IOWA CODE ANN. § 141A.7
Laboratory reporting lawsIowa Admin. Code 641-11.6(141A)
Other confidentiality lawsI.C.A. §141A.9

Kansas

HIV/STD criminalizationK.S.A. 21-5424
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesK.S.A. 65-2892
K.S.A. 38-123b
K.S.A. 38-101
Perinatal HIV testingK.S.A. §65-6018
K.A.R. 28-1-27
HIV testing in the general population
Laboratory reporting lawsK.S.A. 65-6002
Other confidentiality lawsK.S.A. 65-6003
K.S.A. 65-6004
K.S.A. 65-6010

Kentucky

HIV/STD criminalizationKRS §311.990(27)(b)
KRS §529.090(3) & (4)
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesKRS §2.015
KRS §214.185
KRS §214.625
Perinatal HIV testing
HIV testing in the general populationKY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 214.181
Laboratory reporting laws902 Ky. Admin. Regs. 2:020
902 Ky. Admin Regs. 2:020E

Louisiana

Maine

HIV/STD criminalization
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD services32 M.R.S.A. §2595
22 M.R.S.A. §1908
32 M.R.S.A. §3292
1 M.R.S.A. §73
22 M.R.S.A. §1823
Perinatal HIV testing5 M.R.S.A. §19203-A
HIV testing in the general populationREV. STAT. ANN. TIT. 5 § 19203-A
REV. STAT. ANN. TIT. 5 § 19204-A
Laboratory reporting laws10-144 CMR Ch. 258. § 2
Other confidentiality laws5 M.R.S.A.
§19203 5 M.R.S.A.
§19203-D

Maryland

Massachusetts

HIV/STD criminalizationM.G.L.A. 265 §22B(f)
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesM.G.L.A. 231 §85P
M.G.L.A. 111 §24E
M.G.L.A. 111 §117
M.G.L.A. 112 §12F
Perinatal HIV testing
HIV testing in the general populationMASS. GEN. LAWS ANN. CH. 111 § 70F
105 MASS. CODE REGS. § 300.200
130 MASS. CODE REGS. § 405.402
Laboratory reporting laws105 CMR 300.180
105 CMR 300.170

Michigan

HIV/STD criminalizationM.C.L.A. 333.5210
M.C.L.A. 333.11101
M.C.L.A. 777.13k
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesM.C.L.A. 333.5127
M.C.L.A. 722.52
Perinatal HIV testingM.C.L.A. §333.5123
HIV testing in the general populationMICH. COMP. LAWS ANN. § 333.5133
Laboratory reporting lawsMCLA 333.5114
Other confidentiality lawsMCLA 333.5131

Minnesota

HIV/STD criminalizationM.S.A. §609.2241
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesM.S.A. §144.343
M.S.A. §645.452
M.S.A. §645.45
M.S.A. §645.451
M.S.A. §144.346
Perinatal HIV testing
HIV testing in the general populationMINN. R. 4605.7800
Laboratory reporting lawsMinnesota Rules, part 4605.7030

Mississippi

Missouri

HIV/STD criminalizationV.A.M.S. 191.677
V.A.M.S. 575.155
Mo. Ann. Stat. §567.020 MO Rev Stat § 575.157 (2019)
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesV.A.M.S. 431.055
V.A.M.S. 431.061
V.A.M.S. 431.062
V.A.M.S. 191.656
Perinatal HIV testing
HIV testing in the general populationCODE REGS. ANN. TIT. 19, § 20-26.040
Mo. Ann. Stat. § 191.653
Laboratory reporting laws19 Mo. Code of State Regulations 20-20.020
Other confidentiality lawsV.A.M.S. 191.656
V.A.M.S. 191.657

Montana

HIV/STD criminalizationMCA 50-18-112
MCA 50-18-113
MCA 46-18-212
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesMCA 41-1-101
MCA 41-1-402
MCA 41-1-405
MT CONST Art. 2, §14
MCA 41-1-403
Perinatal HIV testingMCA 50-16-1015
MCA 50-16-1016
HIV testing in the general populationMONT. CODE ANN. § 50-16-1014
MONT. ADMIN. R. 37.114.503
Laboratory reporting lawsMont. Admin. R. 37.114.204
Mont. Admin. R. 37.114.203
Other confidentiality lawsMT Code § 50-16-1004

Nebraska

HIV/STD criminalizationNeb. Rev.St. §28-934
Neb. Rev.St. §28-105
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesNeb. Rev.St. §71-504
Neb. Rev.St. §43-2101
Perinatal HIV testingNeb.Rev.St. § 71-502.03
HIV testing in the general populationNEB. REV. STAT. § 71-531
Laboratory reporting lawsNeb. Admin. R. & Regs. Tit. 173, Ch. 1, § 1-005

Nevada

HIV/STD criminalizationN.R.S. 201.205
N.R.S. 201.358
N.R.S. 441A.300
N.R.S. 441A.180 SB 275
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesN.R.S. 129.030
N.R.S. 441A.310
N.R.S. 129.060
N.R.S. 129.010
Perinatal HIV testingN.R.S. 442.640
N.R.S. 442.650
N.R.S. 442.660
HIV testing in the general populationNEV. REV. STAT. § 441A.336
Laboratory reporting lawsNAC 441A.235

New Hampshire

HIV/STD criminalization
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesN.H. Rev. Stat. §141-C:18
N.H. Rev. Stat. §21:44
N.H. Rev. Stat. § 21-B:1
Perinatal HIV testingN.H. Code Admin. R. Mid 502.03
HIV testing in the general populationN.H. REV. STAT. ANN. § 141-F:5
N.H. REV. STAT. ANN. § 141-F:7
Laboratory reporting lawsN.H. Code Admin. R. He-P 301.02
Other confidentiality lawsNH Rev Stat § 141-F:8 NH Rev Stat § 141-F:11

New Jersey

HIV/STD criminalizationN.J.S.A. 2C:34-5
N.J.S.A. 2C:14-1
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesN.J.S.A. 9:17B-3
N.J.S.A. 9:17A-4
N.J.S.A. 9:17A-5 N.J.S.A. 9:17B-1
Perinatal HIV testingN.J.S.A. 26 §5C-16
N.J.S.A. 26 §2-111.2
N.J.A.C. 8:61–4.6
N.J.A.C. 8:61–4.4
N.J.A.C. 8:61–4.5
N.J.A.C. 8:61–4.8
N.J.A.C. 8:61–4.2
HIV testing in the general population
Laboratory reporting lawsN.J.A.C. 8:57-2.5
N.J.A.C. 8:57-2.8
Other confidentiality lawsNJ Rev Stat § 26:5C-7

New Mexico

HIV/STD criminalization
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesN. M. S. A. 1978, §28-6-1
N. M. S. A. 1978, §24-1-9
N. M. S. A. 1978, §24-8-5
N. M. S. A. 1978, §24-1-9.4
N. M. S. A. 1978, §24-2B-3
Perinatal HIV testingN.M. Stat. 1978, §24-2B-2
HIV testing in the general populationN.M. STAT. ANN. § 24-2B-2
N.M. STAT. ANN. § 24-2B-4
Laboratory reporting lawsN.M. Admin. Code 7.4.3.13

New York

North Carolina

HIV/STD criminalization10A NCAC 41A.0202
10A NCAC 41A.0204
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesN.C.G.S.A. §130A-148
N.C.G.S.A. §90-21.5
N.C.G.S.A. §48A-2
10A NCAC 43A.0503
N.C.G.S.A. §90-21.4
Perinatal HIV testing10A NCAC 41A.0202
HIV testing in the general populationN.C. GEN. STAT. ANN. § 130A-148
10A N.C. ADMIN. CODE 41A.0202(16)
Laboratory reporting laws10A NCAC 41A.0101
Other confidentiality lawsN.C. Gen. Stat. § 130A-143

North Dakota

HIV/STD criminalizationNDCC, 12.1-20-17
NDCC, 23-07-21
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesNDCC, 14-10-01
NDCC, 14-10-17
Perinatal HIV testing
HIV testing in the general populationN.D. CENT. CODE § 23-07.5-04
N.D. CENT. CODE § 23-07.5-01
NDCC, 23-07.5-02
Laboratory reporting lawsNDAC 33-06-01-01
Other confidentiality lawsNDCC 45-03-11

Ohio

HIV/STD criminalizationR.C. §2903.11
R.C. §2907.24
R.C. §2907.25
R.C. §2907.241
R.C. §2921.38
R.C. §2927.13
R.C. §3701.81
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesR.C. §3701.242
R.C. §3109.01
R.C. §3709.241
OAC 3701-3-11
Perinatal HIV testing
HIV testing in the general populationOHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 3701.242
OHIO ADMIN. CODE 3701-3-11
Laboratory reporting lawsOAC 3701-3-12
Other confidentiality lawsOAC 3701.243

Oklahoma

HIV/STD criminalization21 Okl. St. Ann. §1031
21 Okl. St. Ann. §1192.1
21 Okl. St. Ann. §1192
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD services63 Okl. St. Ann. §2601
63 Okl. St. Ann. §2602
63 Okl. St. Ann. §1-532.1
15 Okl. St. Ann. §13
Perinatal HIV testing63 Okl. St. Ann. §1-515.1
HIV testing in the general populationOkla. Stat. Ann. tit. 63, § 1-502.3
OKLA. STA. ANN. tit. 63, § 1-528
Laboratory reporting lawsOkla. Admin. Code 310:515-1-4

Oregon

HIV/STD criminalizationOR. REV. STAT. § 433.010
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesO.R.S. §109.510
O.R.S. §109.610 — formerly cited as OR ST §109.105
O.R.S. §109.640
O.R.S. §109.650
Perinatal HIV testingO.R.S. §433.017
OAR 333-019-0036
HIV testing in the general populationOR. REV. STAT. ANN. § 433.045
Or. Admin. R. 333-022-0205
Laboratory reporting lawsOAR 333-018-0015
Other confidentiality lawsORS 433.045 (4)

Pennsylvania

HIV/STD criminalization18 PA.C.S.A §2703
18 PA.C.S.A. §2704
18 PA.C.S.A. §5902
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD services1 Pa.C.S.A. §1991
23 Pa.C.S.A. §5101
35 P.S. §521.14a
35 P.S. §10103
35 P.S. §10101
28 Pa. Code §27.97
Perinatal HIV testing
HIV testing in the general population35 PA. CONS. STAT. ANN. § 7605
Laboratory reporting laws28 Pa. Code § 27.22
28 Pa. Code § 27.32a
Other confidentiality laws35 P.S. § 7607

Rhode Island

South Carolina

HIV/STD criminalizationCODE 1976 §44-29-145
CODE 1976 §24-13-470
CODE 1976 §44-29-60
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesCode 1976 §63-5-340
Code 1976 §63-5-350
Code 1976 §15-1-320
SC Code 1976 §44-29-135
Perinatal HIV testing
HIV testing in the general population
Laboratory reporting lawsS.C. Code of Regulations R. 61-20
Other confidentiality lawsS.C. CODE ANN. § 44-29-135
SC Code § 44-29-136
S.C. CODE ANN. REGS. § 61-21

South Dakota

HIV/STD criminalizationSDCL §22-18-31
SDCL §22-18-33
SDCL §22-18-34
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesSDCL §34-23-17
SDCL §34-23-16
SDCL § 26-1-1
Perinatal HIV testing
HIV testing in the general population
Laboratory reporting lawsARSD 44:20:01:04
Other confidentiality lawsSDCL 34 -22-12.1
SDCL 34 -22-12.2

Tennessee

HIV/STD criminalizationC. A. §39-13-109
T. C. A. §39-13-516
T. C. A. §68-32-104
T.C.A. § 68-10-107
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesT. C. A. §1-3-105
T. C. A. §68-34-107
T. C. A. §68-34-104
T. C. A. §68-10-104
Perinatal HIV testingT. C. A. §68-5-702
T. C. A. §68-5-703
HIV testing in the general population
Laboratory reporting lawsTenn. Comp. R. & Regs. 1200-14-01.02
Other confidentiality lawsT. C. A.§ 68-10-113

Texas

Utah

HIV/STD criminalizationU.C.A. 1953 §76-5-102.6
U.C.A. 1953 §76-10-1309
U.C.A. 1953 § 76-3-203.12
U.C.A. 1953 § 76-5-102.9
U.C.A. 1953 §26-6-5
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesU.C.A. 1953 §26-6-18
U.C.A. 1953 §15-2-1
U.C.A. 1953 §76-7-322
U.A.C. R512-32
Perinatal HIV testing
HIV testing in the general population
Laboratory reporting lawsU.A.C. R386-702-3
Other confidentiality lawsUtah Code Section 26-6-3.5

Vermont

HIV/STD criminalization
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD services1 V.S.A. §173
18 V.S.A. §4226
Perinatal HIV testing
HIV testing in the general population
Laboratory reporting lawsVt. Admin. Code 12-5-12:6.0
Other confidentiality lawsVT. STAT. ANN. TIT. 18, § 1099

Virginia

HIV/STD criminalizationVA CODE ANN. §18.2-67.4:1(A) & (B)
VA CODE ANN. §32.1-289.2
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesVA Code Ann. §1-204
VA Code Ann. §54.1-2969
VA Code Ann. § 1-207
Perinatal HIV testingVA Code Ann. §54.1-2403.01
12 VAC 5-90-130
HIV testing in the general populationVA. CODE ANN. § 32.1-37.2
Laboratory reporting laws12 VAC 5-90-80
12 VAC 5-90-90

Washington

HIV/STD criminalizationWest’s RCWA 9A.36.011
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesWest’s RCWA 9.02.100
West’s RCWA 26.28.010
West’s RCWA 70.24.110
Perinatal HIV testingWAC 246-329-120
HIV testing in the general populationWASH. ADMIN. CODE 246-100-207
WASH. ADMIN. CODE 246-100-209
Laboratory reporting lawsWAC 246-101-201
Other confidentiality lawsRCW 70.24.450
WAC 246-101-520
WAC 246-101-635

West Virginia

HIV/STD criminalizationW. Va. Code, §16-4-20
W. Va. Code, §16-4-26
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesVa. Code, §2-3-1
W. Va. Code, §16-4-10
W. Va. Code St. R. § 64-64-10
Perinatal HIV testingW. Va. Code, §16-3C-2
W. Va. Code St. R. §64-64-4
HIV testing in the general populationW. VA. CODE ANN. §16-3C-2
Laboratory reporting lawsVa. Code R. § 64-7-3
W. Va. Code St. R. § 64-64-13
Other confidentiality lawsWV Code § 16-3C-3

Wisconsin

HIV/STD criminalizationW.S.A. 973.017
WIS. STAT. § 252.19
WIS.ADMIN.CODE DHS§ 145.06(2)
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesW.S.A. 990.01
W.S.A. 252.11
W.S.A. 252.15
Wis. Adm. Code §DHS 145.21
Perinatal HIV testing
HIV testing in the general populationWIS. STAT. ANN. § 252.15
Laboratory reporting lawsWis. Admin. Code Ch. DHS 145, Appendix A
Other confidentiality lawsWI Stat § 252.15

Wyoming

HIV/STD criminalization
Minors’ autonomous consent to HIV and/or STD servicesW.S.1977 §14-1-101
W.S.1977 §35-4-131
W.S.1977 §42-5-101
Perinatal HIV testing
HIV testing in the general population
Laboratory reporting lawsWY Rules and Regulations 048.0051.2 § 1
Other confidentiality lawsWY Stat § 7-1-109 (f)

Topics such as HIV status, confidentiality and safety, and what a person must disclose about their HIV status specifically can vary.

The federal laws offer protections for medical information and discrimination, but laws surrounding HIV specifically can vary from state to state. Some laws may be considered outdated based on the medical community’s increased knowledge over the years.

Anyone who is uncertain about their rights, requirements, and protections in their particular state should consult their state’s health department for the specific details in each case.