Scientists are still learning why some people experience worse perimenopause symptoms than others. Some possible factors that may contribute include a higher body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol consumption.
This information comes from a
In some people, severe symptoms may also be a sign that a person has a different health condition. For example, uterine fibroids
In this article, we will explain what typical and severe perimenopause symptoms might look like, why they happen, and what can help.
- night sweats
- hot flashes
- mood swings or irritability
- a low mood
- concentration problems
- less frequent periods that get
- vaginal dryness
- pain during sex
- less interest in sex
- heart palpitations
- joint or muscle pain
- urinary tract infections (UTIs)
Not everyone will experience every symptom, though. Having only one of these symptoms intensely could qualify as severe perimenopause.
Researchers are not entirely sure why some people have worse perimenopause symptoms than others. However, research suggests several factors may contribute, such as:
- having a
higherbody mass index (BMI)
- currently or formerly smoking cigarettes
- drinking alcohol
- other conditions that worsen or add to a person’s symptoms, such as uterine fibroids
- earlier onset, as this
appears to predictlonger and more severe menopause symptoms
Keep in mind that these factors do not guarantee a person will have severe symptoms. They may only increase the risk or represent an association that scientists have noticed in data.
Link with health inequity
Perimenopause and race
When researchers began collecting this data, Black participants were:
- more likely to have experienced socioeconomic hardship than white participants
- more likely to report experiencing discrimination than white participants
- more likely to experience depression, although this association disappeared after adjusting for socioeconomic factors that raise the risk of depression, such as financial strain, stressful life events, and a lack of support
All of these factors can make menopause a more challenging experience and may make the symptoms themselves more severe. Because of this, the authors say it is likely that social inequity is at least partly responsible.
It is difficult to compare perimenopause and menopause symptoms, as everyone’s experience is unique. Generally speaking, though, experts know perimenopause as being the
Certain symptoms, such as vaginal dryness and hot flashes, may continue into postmenopause for some people.
Perceptions about menopause
Some research has found that people perceive menopause more favorably in the postmenopausal stage than during perimenopause. This may be due to a tendency to overestimate the emotional impact of future events, which is known as “affective forecasting” in psychology.
Managing severe perimenopause symptoms may involve a combination of lifestyle changes, self-care, and medications. It may help to:
- stop smoking, if relevant
- avoid hot flash triggers, such as caffeine, alcohol, or spicy foods
- maintain a healthy BMI
- get regular exercise
- eat a balanced diet
- reduce stress
- get enough rest and sleep
People can also practice self-care to manage their symptoms when they do occur, which may involve:
- sleeping with a fan on
- wearing lightweight clothing
- staying hydrated
- using lubricant for vaginal dryness
If self-care does not reduce the symptoms, people can speak with a doctor for further support. They may suggest:
- Medications: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is an effective treatment for perimenopause symptoms, but there are other options.
- Support groups: Speaking with people going through similar experiences can provide emotional support during perimenopause. Online resources are available through the Endocrine Society. A doctor may also be able to recommend a local support group.
- Symptom tracking: Recording symptoms using a diary or app may help a person feel more in control, gain a better understanding of their symptoms, or potentially spot patterns.
The North American Menopause Society has a search tool for finding menopause specialists by zip code.
Anyone with severe perimenopause symptoms can speak with a doctor for help and advice. People should also consult a medical professional if they are unsure they are in perimenopause, as there could be other explanations.
Talk with a doctor if any symptoms appear suddenly, get much worse, or do not fit with descriptions of perimenopause. This is especially important if a person experiences any of the following:
- watery or bloody vaginal discharge
- bleeding after sex
- worsening back or pelvic pain
- unintentional weight loss
Perimenopause can affect sleep, mood, energy levels, and sexual health. Scientists are not sure why some people experience more severe symptoms than others, but evidence suggests that certain factors may increase the risk.
Treatment involves a combination of lifestyle changes and medications to relieve symptoms. However, it is important to seek medical advice if a symptom suddenly appears, gets significantly worse, or is not typical for perimenopause.