There are several things a person can do that might help relieve a coughing attack. However, the best way to treat a cough is to tackle the underlying cause.
Coughing is a symptom of many different health conditions. Some of these conditions are relatively harmless, while others are much more severe.
This article outlines the different types of cough and lists the most common causes of acute and chronic coughs. It also provides information on how to stop a coughing attack and when to see a doctor.
There are several methods a person can try to stop a coughing attack when one begins. These include:
- drinking plenty of water
- sipping hot water with honey
- taking over-the-counter (OTC) cough medicines
- taking a steamy shower
- using a humidifier in the home
Many coughs occur due to dryness or irritation in the throat. The methods listed above can all help relieve dryness and irritation if present.
A cough can also be a symptom of an underlying health condition. In these instances, treating the underlying condition should stop the cough.
How to stop infants coughing
Children and infants who have a cough should drink plenty of water. This will help soothe the throat and minimize coughing.
Placing a cool mist vaporizer or humidifier next to the child’s bed can help alleviate nighttime coughing.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not recommend giving OTC cough medicines to children under 2 years of age.
Many different health conditions can cause a cough. In order to identify the cause, it can be helpful to understand the different types of cough.
According to the American Lung Association, healthcare practitioners classify coughs as follows:
- Acute cough: This is a cough that comes on suddenly and lasts up to 3 weeks.
- Subacute cough: This is a cough that comes on suddenly and lasts around 3–8 weeks.
- Chronic cough: This is cough that lasts longer than 8 weeks.
- Productive cough: This is a cough that produces phlegm.
- Dry cough: This is a cough that does not produce phlegm.
- Nocturnal cough: This is cough that only occurs at night.
- Hemoptysis: This means coughing up blood or blood stained mucus from the lungs.
The following are some common causes of an acute cough.
During the current pandemic, a person may be concerned that a dry cough is a symptom of COVID-19. This is the disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.
The main symptoms of COVID-19 are:
- a dry cough
- a fever
- shortness of breath
Most people who contract SARS-CoV-2 will develop mild symptoms. However, some may develop severe and even life threatening symptoms. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise that people seek emergency medical treatment if they develop any of the following symptoms:
- difficulty breathing
- persistent pressure or pain in the chest
- confusion or an inability to arouse
- blue discoloration of the lips or face, or cyanosis
Upper respiratory tract infections
An upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is a viral or bacterial infection of one or more of the following:
- the nose
- the sinuses
- the pharynx, which is the part of the throat that sits behind the mouth and nasal cavity
- the larynx, or voicebox
Some examples of URTIs include:
A cough is a common symptom of URTIs. Other common symptoms include:
- a sore throat
- nasal congestion, or a runny nose
- pressure in and around the face
- low grade fever
- muscle aches
Lower respiratory tract infections
Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) affect the large airways of the lungs. Some examples include bronchitis and pneumonia.
Bronchitis is an infection of the bronchi, which are the main airways of the lungs. The primary symptom of bronchitis is a dry or productive cough. A productive cough may produce green, yellow, or blood tinged mucus.
Other symptoms include:
Pneumonia is an infection in one or both lungs. It typically causes a dry or productive cough.
Some other common symptoms of pneumonia include:
- rapid and shallow breathing
- shortness of breath, even when resting
- chest pain that worsens when breathing or coughing
- a rapid heartbeat
- fever and chills
- a loss of appetite
Allergic rhinitis is a condition in which a person’s immune system overreacts to something in the environment.
Common environmental allergy triggers, or allergens, include:
People who have allergic rhinitis may experience a dry cough as a result of breathing in an allergen. Some other potential symptoms of allergic rhinitis include:
- nasal congestion
- itching in the eyes, nose, mouth, or throat
- swollen eyelids
A person may develop an acute cough after breathing in certain irritants from their environment. Examples of such irritants include:
- cigarette smoke
- diesel fumes
Inhaling irritants can cause symptoms similar to those of allergic rhinitis.
The sections below outline some of the more common causes of a chronic cough.
Asthma is a chronic lung condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways. This narrowing makes it difficult for air to move in and out of the lungs, resulting in breathing difficulties.
- coughing fits
- a tight feeling in the chest
- shortness of breath
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
The term chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to a group of chronic lung conditions that obstruct airflow in and out of the lungs.
In COPD, the airways within the lungs become inflamed and thickened, and the lung tissue responsible for exchanging gases can become damaged.
Chronic cough and shortness of breath are common symptoms of COPD. Other possible signs and symptoms of COPD include:
- excessive mucus production
- frequent respiratory infections
- cyanosis of the lips or fingernail beds
A cough can sometimes be a side effect of certain medications.
According to a 2012 case report, the antiepileptic drug topiramate can also cause a dry cough.
In order to prevent a coughing fit, a person will need to identify and treat the underlying cause of the cough.
People with chronic respiratory conditions will require medical treatments to reduce the frequency and severity of coughing fits.
Those who develop coughing fits in response to certain allergens or irritants should try limiting their exposure to those substances.
Another option for people with allergies is to take antihistamines. These drugs help suppress the immune system reaction to environmental allergens, thereby preventing coughing fits.
Quitting smoking will also help prevent coughing episodes.
A person should see a doctor if their cough is severe, is persistent, or worsens over time. These characteristics can indicate that a person requires medical treatment.
Parents and caregivers should also speak to a doctor if their child displays any of the following symptoms:
- a fever of any kind in an infant under 3 months of age
- a fever of 102°F (38.9ºC) or higher in a child of any age
- cyanosis of the lips
- difficult or labored breathing
- a loss of appetite or thirst
- excessive sleepiness
- excessive irritability
- a cough that lasts longer than 3 weeks
Also, anyone who develops bothersome symptoms of COVID-19 should contact their doctor. If the symptoms are severe, they need immediate medical attention.
There are several steps a person can take to stop or manage a cough. These include drinking plenty of water, taking OTC cough medicines, and using an indoor humidifier.
There are a number of health conditions that can cause a cough. Some are relatively harmless and tend to go away on their own. Others are much more severe and may require medical treatment.
A person should talk to their doctor if they develop a severe, persistent, or worsening cough. A person should also contact a doctor if they or their child develop any other concerning symptoms.
A doctor will work to identify the cause of the symptoms and prescribe appropriate treatments.