A coughing attack can happen for various reasons, and there are several things a person can do to help stop uncontrollable coughing. These include taking antihistamines, using cough medication, avoiding smoking, treating an underlying condition, and more.
Coughing is a symptom of many different health conditions. Some of these conditions are relatively harmless, while others are much more severe.
This article outlines the different types of coughs and lists the most common causes of acute and chronic coughs. It also provides information on how to stop a coughing attack, diagnose a cough, and when to see a doctor.
There are several methods a person can try to stop a coughing attack when one begins. These include:
- drinking plenty of water
- sipping hot water with honey
- taking over-the-counter (OTC) cough medicines
- taking a steamy shower
- using a humidifier in the home
- using cough drops or hard candies
Many coughs occur due to dryness or irritation in the throat. The methods listed above can all help relieve dryness and irritation if present.
A cough can also be a symptom of an underlying health condition. In these instances, treating the underlying condition should stop the cough.
How to stop infants from coughing
Children and infants who have a cough should drink plenty of water. This will help soothe the throat and minimize coughing. Placing a cool mist vaporizer or humidifier next to a child’s bed can help alleviate nighttime coughing.
Many different health conditions can cause a cough. It can be helpful to understand the different types of coughs to identify the condition.
According to the American Lung Association (ALA), healthcare practitioners classify coughs as follows:
- Acute cough: This cough occurs suddenly and lasts up to 3 weeks.
- Subacute cough: This cough comes on suddenly and lasts around 3–8 weeks.
- Chronic cough: This is a cough that lasts longer than 8 weeks.
- Productive cough: This is a cough that produces phlegm.
- Dry cough: This cough does not produce phlegm.
- Nocturnal cough: This is a cough that only occurs at night.
- Hemoptysis: This is when a person is coughing up blood or blood-stained mucus from their lungs.
The following are some common causes of acute coughs.
A dry cough is a common symptom of a COVID-19 infection.
- difficulty breathing
- persistent pressure or pain in their chest
- confusion or an inability to arouse
- blue discoloration of the lips or face, or cyanosis
In most cases, people with COVID-19 will experience symptoms for
For more advice on COVID-19 prevention and treatment, visit our coronavirus hub.
Upper respiratory tract infections
Coughs are a common symptom of an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). This is a viral or bacterial infection in the nose, sinuses, or throat.
Some examples of URTIs include:
In most cases, respiratory tract infection symptoms pass within 1–2 weeks. During this time, resting, drinking plenty of water, and using OTC pain relievers and cough-suppressant home treatments can help.
Lower respiratory tract infections
Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) affect the lungs’ large airways. Some examples include bronchitis and pneumonia.
Bronchitis is an infection of the bronchi, the lungs’ main airways. The primary symptom of bronchitis is a dry or productive cough. A productive cough may produce green, yellow, or blood-tinged mucus.
Pneumonia is an infection in one or both of the lungs. It typically causes a dry or productive cough.
Allergic rhinitis, or hay fever, occurs when a person’s immune system overreacts to something in the environment.
Common environmental allergy triggers, or allergens, include:
Allergic rhinitis symptoms typically resolve once a person removes the irritant from their surrounding. Taking antihistamines may reduce the severity of the reaction in the first instance.
A person may develop an acute cough after breathing in certain environmental irritants. Examples include:
- cigarette smoke
- diesel fumes
- perfumes or colognes
Inhaling irritants can cause symptoms similar to those of allergic rhinitis, and treatment is often the same.
However, in the case of severe reactions, seek medical help.
The sections below outline some of the more common causes of a chronic cough.
Asthma is a chronic lung condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways. This narrowing makes it difficult for air to move in and out of the lungs, resulting in breathing difficulties.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a group of chronic lung conditions that obstruct airflow in and out of the lungs.
COPD can inflame and thicken the airways within the lungs, damaging the lung tissue responsible for exchanging gases.
Lung cancer is the
People with lung cancer may not have symptoms until the disease is at an advanced stage.
A cough can sometimes be a side effect of certain medications.
To prevent a coughing fit, a person must identify and treat the underlying cause of the cough.
People with chronic respiratory conditions will require medical treatments to reduce the frequency and severity of coughing fits. Those who develop coughing fits in response to certain allergens or irritants should try limiting their exposure to those substances.
Another option for people with allergies is to take antihistamines. These drugs help suppress the immune system’s response to environmental allergens, thereby preventing coughing fits.
Coughing is a common symptom of a variety of health conditions. According to the ALA, a person should take note of the duration, type, and features of their cough when speaking with a healthcare professional to assist with diagnosis.
If a person is experiencing other symptoms, such as chest pains, difficulty breathing, headaches, drowsiness, confusion, fever, and they are coughing up blood then a doctor may prescribe further tests.
A person should see a doctor if their cough is severe, persistent, or worsens over time. These characteristics can indicate that a person requires medical treatment.
Parents and caregivers should also speak to a doctor if their child displays any of the following symptoms:
- a fever of any kind in an infant under 3 months of age
- a fever of 102°F (38.9ºC) or higher in a child of any age
- cyanosis of the lips
There are several steps a person can take to stop or manage a cough. These include drinking plenty of water, taking over-the-counter cough medicines, and using an indoor humidifier.
Several health conditions can cause a cough. Some are relatively harmless and tend to go away on their own. Others are much more severe and may require medical treatment.
A person should talk with a doctor if they develop a severe, persistent, or worsening cough. A person should also contact a doctor if they or their child develop any other concerning symptoms.
A doctor will work to identify the cause of the symptoms and prescribe appropriate treatments.