Hypoketotic hypoglycemia occurs when a person has low blood sugar levels due to their inability to break down fats efficiently for energy. It typically has links to fatty acid oxidation disorders.
Fatty acid oxidation disorders are a type of inherited metabolic condition that negatively affects the body’s ability to break down fats for energy.
Typically, when blood sugar levels dip, the body will switch to using fats. However, a person with a fatty acid oxidation disorder cannot effectively process the fat for energy. This leads to both low blood sugar levels and low energy.
This article reviews what hypoketotic hypoglycemia is, the possible causes, symptoms, treatments, and more.
Usually, the body will start to break down fats for energy when blood glucose (sugar) levels are low. A person with a fatty acid oxidation disorder cannot efficiently break down fats for energy. This leaves them with both low blood glucose levels and low energy.
Fatty acid oxidation disorders and similar disorders can appear at any age but often present during infancy, early childhood, and adolescence.
Hypoketotic hypoglycemia typically occurs due to fatty acid oxidation disorders. There are several different types of this disorder. The
Other types of fatty acid oxidation disorders include:
- very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
- long-chain 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
- trifunctional protein deficiency
Long-chain fatty acids require a substance known as carnitine to carry them across the mitochondrial inner membrane for use in producing energy. Carnitine transport disorders affect the ability to transport fatty acids effectively, which can also lead to hypoketotic hypoglycemia and other symptoms.
Some examples of carnitine transport disorders include:
- carnitine palmitoyltransferase type 1 deficiency
- carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency
- carnitine palmitoyltransferase type 2 deficiency
- carnitine transporter deficiency
Hypoketotic hypoglycemia can cause symptoms similar to low blood glucose levels. These
Without treatment, it can lead to more severe symptoms that may include:
Diagnosis may begin when a parent or guardian consults a doctor due to a child exhibiting signs of low blood sugar levels. A doctor may begin with a physical examination along with a review of personal and family medical history.
To diagnose a fatty acid disorder or carnitine transport disorder, a doctor may need to run various tests to determine the underlying causes. Tests
The doctor will be able to explain the tests that they order and answer any questions.
- ongoing nutritional management, which often involves working with a metabolic dietician or doctor to help manage a person’s diet
- aggressive treatment during illness, which may involve providing additional carbohydrates and sources of energy when the individual is under metabolic stress
- avoiding fasting, as this does not allow blood sugar levels to dip through regular feeding of infants or children
Another possible treatment is supplementing carnitine. However, this is somewhat controversial and may only help in secondary cases of carnitine disorders.
The doctor will be able to advise on which treatments they recommend and what the treatments involve.
An individual should contact a doctor if they have concerns about the symptoms of hypoketotic hypoglycemia or fatty acid oxidation disorders.
A parent or guardian should watch for signs of possible hypoglycemia,
A pregnant individual
Hypoketotic hypoglycemia occurs when blood glucose and ketones are low. It typically occurs because the body cannot process fats properly when sugar is not present or low.
It is often a symptom of fatty acid oxidation disorders. Treatment typically involves keeping a person from fasting and providing adequate amounts of carbohydrates during acute infections.
It is best for a person to contact a doctor if they have concerns about hypoketotic hypoglycemia or fatty acid oxidation disorders. Healthcare professionals may order tests to confirm the diagnosis and advise on suitable treatments.