Jaw pain may occur on one side of the jaw or both sides. Some conditions may cause jaw pain on one side, which may travel to the opposite side. These conditions may range from sinusitis to tumors and cysts.
This pain is not usually a cause for concern and may result from sinusitis, oral health issues, or TMJ disorders. People can treat these causes at home, or a doctor can prescribe a suitable treatment method.
This article will explore the possible causes of one-sided jaw pain, how a person may reduce jaw pain symptoms, and the available treatment options.
The temporomandibular joints (TMJ) are on either side of the jaw, but a person may experience jaw pain on one side.
The temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
Along with the jaw muscles, the TMJ allows for jaw movements,
- opening the mouth
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) refer to conditions that cause jaw joint and muscle pain and dysfunction of these structures. This disorder may affect one side of the jaw or both.
Disorders that may affect the TMJ
- Disc disorders: This disc can dislocate on one side of the jaw,
- difficulty opening their mouth fully
- jaw getting stuck open
- TMJ arthralgia: A person may experience pain within the TMJ itself for various reasons, including infections within the joint or inflammation. They may also experience the following:
- pain in the jaw or other parts of the face
- pain when chewing or speaking
- popping or clicking noise when moving
- Bone destruction: There may be the destruction of the jaw bone in conditions such as osteoarthritis (OA). OA may cause the articular disc to break down, leading to inflammation and pain in the TMJ on one side.
How common is TMD?
According to the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, the prevalence of TMJ and temporomandibular muscle disorders ranges between
There is no single test to diagnose TMD. A doctor will likely:
- examine the jaw and other parts of the face
- listen for jaw clicking
- assess how much a person can move their jaw on one side
The doctor may also request additional tests to confirm findings, which may include:
The available treatment option will depend on the severity of TMD. Conservative treatment may reduce symptoms in
- a diet consisting of soft food such as mashed potato, or liquid food such as soup
- applying a warm compress on the affected area of the jaw
- gentle stretching of the jaw
A person may require over-the-counter pain medication, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, to ease the pain.
A person may also experience one-sided jaw pain due to oral health or dental issues. Oral health issues that may be causing pain in the jaw joint may include:
tooth decayor cavities
- grinding or clenching the teeth (
- a growing
wisdom tooth misalignedteeth gum disease
How common are oral health issues?
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),
A person will likely see a doctor or a dentist to determine if they have any oral health issues. The medical professional will ask the person about other symptoms, such as:
- oral pain
- bleeding in the mouth
- teeth sensitivity
The medical professional is also likely to observe the mouth for:
- signs of the teeth wearing away
- crowded and misaligned teeth
The treatment option will depend on the type of oral health issue a person is experiencing.
For misaligned teeth, a person may require dental braces. These will
A person with sinusitis may experience the following:
- facial pain and pressure on one side of the jaw
- facial fullness
- a blocked nose
- difficulty smelling
How common is sinusitis?
According to 2018 data from the CDC,
A doctor will diagnose sinusitis after performing a physical exam and taking a medical history. The medical professional may ask a person about their symptoms and examine their face and jaw for:
- mucus blocking the nose
Treatment for sinusitis may include:
- nasal wash
- decongestants, such as pseudoephedrine
- in some cases, intranasal or oral steroids
A person may require antibiotics if a doctor determines that the cause of the sinusitis is bacteria.
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a long-term condition that affects the trigeminal nerve. The trigeminal nerve is one of 12 nerves that connect to the brain, and it is responsible for sensation in the face and the mouth.
A person can experience
Type 1 TN causes flashes of pain on one side of the face triggered by light touch. Type 2 TN causes a constant, aching, burning, and stabbing pain less severe than Type 1.
How common is trigeminal neuralgia?
The incidence of TN is approximately
TN occurs more frequently in people over the age of 50 and in women.
To make a diagnosis, a doctor will:
- take a person’s medical history
- carry out a physical examination, as well as a neurological examination, to determine if they have TN
- request an MRI scan of the brain to determine whether a blood vessel is pressing on the trigeminal nerve
First-line treatment for TN is typically medication, and a person may use these alone or in combination. The medications include:
- antiseizure medication, such as
- muscle relaxants, such as baclofen
- antidepressants, such as amitriptyline and nortriptyline
TN that is not responsive to medication may require surgery, such as:
- balloon compression
- glycerol injection
- radiofrequency ablation
- stereotactic radiosurgery
- microvascular decompression
A person should discuss these possible options with their doctor.
Osteomyelitis is a bone infection. This may occur in the jaw bone or other bones of the face.
This infection may occur due to trauma, surgery, or a lack of blood flow. It may also spread from some elsewhere in the body.
A person with osteomyelitis may experience pain at the site of infection, as well as the
How common is osteomyelitis?
There is an estimated 2–5 cases of osteomyelitis per 10,000 people in the United States.
Cases of osteomyelitis can happen anywhere in a person’s body. Anaerobic osteomyelitis often affects the lower jawbone.
A doctor is
The medical professional will ask about symptoms the person has been experiencing and physically examine the site of infection for swelling, redness, and warmth.
The doctor will request additional tests, such as:
The doctor may also take a biopsy (a sample of the bone) and send this to a laboratory so that they can see the tissue culture and identify the pathogen.
Treatment for osteomyelitis will depend on the severity of the infection. Doctors will introduce antibiotics, and it may also be necessary to clean and drain the area of infection.
A tumor occurs when
Benign tumors and cysts
Some benign jaw tumors include:
- Ameloblastoma: These are
rarebenign tumors that rarely develop into malignant tumors. These are usually asymptomatic until a person notices oral or facial swelling.
- Odontoma: This is the most common type of benign odontogenic tumor — a tumor that arises from the tissue that forms the enamel of the teeth and is usually asymptomatic.
- Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG): These tumors constitute about
7%of all benign jaw tumors and do not tend to cause many symptoms apart from pain and swelling.
Odontogenic cysts are infections that originate in the teeth or their supporting tissues. The
How common are benign tumors and cysts?
Although ameloblastomas only make up 1% of all jaw tumors, they are the second-most common odontogenic tumors — abnormal growths in and around the jaw and teeth.
Meanwhile, the incidence of CGCG in the general population is approximately
Periapical cysts make up
Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor that normally originates in the bones of the jaw — odontogenic. The lower jaw is the most common site for this tumor to develop.
Some people may be asymptomatic. However, others may experience the following:
- progressive pain and swelling
- in rare cases, a person may:
- be unable to open the mouth
- have voice hoarseness
- experience tingling or numbness
- lose their voice
Diagnosis of tumors and cysts
A doctor may rely on a medical history and a physical examination to determine if a person has a tumor or cyst in the jaw region.
The doctor will also likely require imaging tests, such as an X-ray, to determine what structures the tumor or cyst is impacting and its extent. Depending on the tumor type, doctors may also order CT scans.
Doctors diagnose ameloblastic carcinoma based on a thorough clinical evaluation and microscopic examination of the tumor.
One procedure is fine needle aspiration, where a doctor will pass a needle through the skin and insert it into the mass for tissue samples.
Treatment for tumors and cysts will vary depending on several factors, including the following:
- type of tumor cyst
- number of tumors or cysts present
- their size
- if they are harmful or harmless
Some treatments may involve surgical removal, for example, a doctor may surgically remove ameloblastoma.
Malignant treatment options
In malignant cases, treatment depends on the following:
- primary tumor location
- stage of the primary tumor
- degree of malignancy
- whether the tumor has spread
- individual’s age and general health
Possible options include:
- surgical excision
- adjunctive radiation
- radiation therapy
- chemotherapy for osteosarcoma
A person can discuss the most suitable treatment based on the above factors and options.
For general jaw pain, there are things a person can do to improve the pain. Some techniques include:
- avoiding hard foods
- using ice packs on the jaw joint
- taking over-the-counter pain medication such as ibuprofen
- avoiding extreme and repetitive movements of the jaw, such as clenching or gum chewing
- learning relaxation and stress-reduction techniques to limit jaw movement
A person should also see their dentist for regular check-ups to
Causes of one-sided jaw pain may include conditions such as TMD, or trauma. A person will need to see a doctor to determine the cause of their jaw pain and receive a suitable diagnosis and treatment.
People can also follow home remedies to ease jaw pain by using ice packs and over-the-counter pain medication.