Lynparza is a brand-name prescription drug. It’s FDA-approved for use in adults with the following types of cancer:

Lynparza is often prescribed for adults whose cancer has a mutation (an abnormal change) in the BRCA (breast cancer) gene. This type of cancer is called BRCA-positive. The BRCA mutation is linked to the growth and spread of certain types of cancer.

For more information about these types of cancer and how Lynparza is used to treat them, see the following sections below:

Drug details

Lynparza contains the drug olaparib. It belongs to a class of drugs called poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors.

Lynparza comes as tablets that are taken by mouth twice daily. It’s available in the following strengths: 100 milligrams (mg) and 150 mg.

Effectiveness

For information about Lynparza’s effectiveness for its approved uses, see the following sections below:

Lynparza contains the active drug olaparib. It’s available only as a brand-name medication. It’s not currently available in generic form. (A generic drug is an exact copy of the active drug in a brand-name medication.)

Lynparza can cause mild or serious side effects. The following lists contain some of the key side effects that may occur while taking Lynparza. These lists do not include all possible side effects.

For more information on the possible side effects of Lynparza, talk with your doctor or pharmacist. They can give you tips on how to deal with any side effects that may be bothersome.

Note: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tracks side effects of drugs they have approved. If you would like to report to the FDA a side effect you’ve had with Lynparza, you can do so through MedWatch.

More common side effects

The more common side effects of Lynparza can include:

  • nausea, vomiting, or loss of appetite
  • diarrhea or constipation
  • indigestion
  • altered taste in your mouth
  • stomatitis (inflammation), pain, or infection in the lining of your mouth
  • fatigue (lack of energy)
  • weakness
  • dizziness
  • headache
  • pain in your belly, joints, or muscles
  • respiratory tract infections, such as the common cold or the flu
  • urinary tract infection (UTI)
  • blood disorders, such as anemia (low red blood cell level)

Most of these side effects may go away within a few days or a couple of weeks. If they’re more severe or don’t go away, talk with your doctor or pharmacist.

Serious side effects

Serious side effects from Lynparza aren’t common, but they can occur. Call your doctor right away if you have serious side effects. Call 911 if your symptoms feel life-threatening or if you think you’re having a medical emergency.

Serious side effects of Lynparza include:

* This side effect was reported in people who received treatment for metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer. (For information about this type of prostate cancer, see the “Lynparza for prostate cancer” section below.)
† For more information on this side effect, see the “Side effect details” section below.

Side effect details

You may wonder how often certain side effects occur with this drug. Here’s some detail on several of the side effects this drug may cause.

Allergic reaction

As with most drugs, some people can have an allergic reaction after taking Lynparza. In one clinical study, 2% of people who took Lynparza had an allergic reaction to the drug.

Symptoms of a mild allergic reaction can include:

  • skin rash
  • itchiness
  • flushing (warmth and redness in your skin)

A more severe allergic reaction is rare but possible. Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction can include:

  • swelling under your skin, typically in your eyelids, lips, hands, or feet
  • swelling of your tongue, mouth, or throat
  • trouble breathing

Call your doctor right away if you have a severe allergic reaction to Lynparza. Call 911 if your symptoms feel life threatening or if you think you’re having a medical emergency.

Nausea

It’s possible to feel nauseous while you’re taking Lynparza. This is one of the most common side effects of the drug.

In clinical studies, up to 77% of people who took Lynparza had nausea. In comparison, nausea occurred in up to 38% of people who took a placebo (treatment with no active drug).

In these studies, some people stopped taking Lynparza because of nausea. In fact, 2.3% of people who took Lynparza stopped treatment because of this side effect.

If you have nausea during Lynparza treatment, talk with your doctor. They can recommend ways to help relieve this side effect.

Hair loss

Hair loss may occur during treatment with Lynparza. In one clinical study, 3.4% of people who took Lynparza had hair loss. In comparison, hair loss occurred in 13.2% of people who took chemotherapy (traditional drugs used to treat cancer).

If you’re concerned about hair loss during Lynparza treatment, talk with your doctor. They can suggest ways to help manage this side effect.

Rash

You may have a rash while you’re taking Lynparza. In fact, this side effect occurred in up to 20% of people who took Lynparza during clinical studies.

For some people, rash may be a symptom of an allergic reaction. For more information on allergic reactions to Lynparza, see the section “Allergic reaction” above.

If you have a rash while you’re taking Lynparza, talk with your doctor about ways to reduce this side effect.

Blood disorders

Blood disorders are a common side effect of Lynparza. These disorders can include the following:

  • Anemia: With anemia, you have low levels of red blood cells. In clinical studies, anemia occurred in 37% of people who took Lynparza. In one clinical study of people with metastatic breast cancer, 40% of people who took Lynparza had anemia. In comparison, anemia occurred in 26% of people who took chemotherapy (traditional drugs used to treat cancer). In a study of people with recurrent ovarian cancer, 44% of people who took Lynparza had anemia. Of those taking a placebo (treatment with no active drug), 9% had anemia.
  • MDS/AML: A more serious blood disorder called myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML) has also occurred during Lynparza treatment. This condition is a rare form of blood cancer that starts in the blood cells that are formed in your bone marrow. In severe cases, MDS/AML can be fatal. In clinical studies, less than 1.5% of people who took Lynparza alone had MDS/AML. This blood cancer has also occurred in people who took Lynparza in combination with other drugs. In the studies, MDS/AML was seen in people who’d used Lynparza for just a few months to more than 2 years.

Symptoms of blood disorders will vary depending on which disorder you have and how severe your condition is. Symptoms may include:

  • weight loss
  • fever
  • weakness
  • shortness of breath
  • frequent infections
  • bruising or bleeding more often than usual
  • blood in your urine or stool

If you have any of these symptoms, tell your doctor right away. They’ll check to see what’s causing your symptoms, and they’ll recommend if medical treatment is needed.

Before you start taking Lynparza, your doctor will check your blood cell levels to make sure the levels are healthy enough for you to begin treatment. During Lynparza treatment, your doctor will check blood tests at least every month. This allows your doctor to monitor your blood cell levels and make sure they aren’t getting too low.

If your blood cell levels get too low, your doctor may recommend that you stop taking Lynparza until your levels return to a healthy range. However, if you develop MDS/AML during treatment, your doctor will advise that you permanently stop Lynparza treatment.

Respiratory tract infections

You may develop respiratory tract infections while you’re taking Lynparza. These can include the common cold, sore throat, sinus infections, or the flu.

In one clinical study of people with ovarian cancer, 28% of people who took Lynparza had a respiratory tract infection. This is compared with 23% of people who took a placebo (treatment with no active drug).

If you develop a respiratory tract infection while you’re taking Lynparza, let your doctor know. They will recommend whether you need any treatment for the infection.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves prescription drugs such as Lynparza to treat certain conditions. In addition to being FDA-approved to treat certain types of prostate cancer, Lynparza is approved to treat pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer.

For information about these other approved uses, see the following sections:

About prostate cancer that Lynparza is approved to treat

With prostate cancer, you have cancer cells growing in your prostate. Lynparza is approved to treat prostate cancer that’s affected by certain gene mutations (abnormal gene changes). Specifically, the drug is used for prostate cancer that has mutated homologous recombination repair genes.

Lynparza can be used in people whose prostate cancer has all of the following characteristics:

  • is metastatic, which means that the cancer has spread from the prostate to other parts of the body
  • is castration-resistant, which means that it isn’t improving with medication that lowers testosterone levels in your body or after surgery to remove your testicles
  • has worsened after being treated with either enzalutamide (Xtandi) or abiraterone (Zytiga)

When using Lynparza for prostate cancer, you’ll need to either:

  • take another medication with Lynparza to help keep your testosterone levels low, or
  • have had surgery to remove your testicles

Effectiveness for prostate cancer

One study looked at men with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer that had certain abnormal gene changes. Some men took Lynparza, while other men took either enzalutamide or abiraterone. Everyone in the study also took a medication to help keep their testosterone levels low, or they had already had their testicles removed. People included in the study had worsening of their prostate cancer with past treatment using either enzalutamide or abiraterone.

In this study:

  • half of the people who took Lynparza went at least 5.8 to 7.4* months without their cancer getting worse
  • half of the people taking either enzalutamide or abiraterone went at least 3.5 to 3.6* months without their cancer getting worse

* This range varied based on the specific gene mutations that people’s cancers had.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves prescription drugs such as Lynparza to treat certain conditions. In addition to being FDA-approved to treat certain types of pancreatic cancer, Lynparza is approved to treat prostate cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer.

For information about these other approved uses, see the following sections:

About pancreatic cancer that Lynparza is approved to treat

With pancreatic cancer, you have cancer cells growing in your pancreas. Lynparza is approved as a maintenance (ongoing) treatment for pancreatic cancer that:

  • Is metastatic, which means that it has spread from your pancreas to other parts of your body.
  • Is either BRCA-positive or thought to be BRCA-positive. With BRCA-positive cancer, you have a gene mutation (an abnormal change) in the breast cancer (BRCA) gene.
  • Hasn’t gotten worse after being treated for at least 16 weeks with a first-line* chemotherapy drug that’s made with platinum. (Chemotherapy describes traditional drugs used to treat cancer.)

* First-line treatment is the first treatment given for a certain condition.

Effectiveness for pancreatic cancer

One study looked at people with metastatic pancreatic cancer that had BRCA mutations. Some people took Lynparza, while other people took a placebo (treatment with no active drug). People included in the study hadn’t had a worsening of their pancreatic cancer after 16 weeks of treatment with a chemotherapy drug made with platinum.

In this study:

  • half of the people who took Lynparza went at least 7.4 months without their cancer getting worse
  • half of the people taking placebo went at least 3.8 months without their cancer getting worse

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves prescription drugs such as Lynparza to treat certain conditions. In addition to being FDA-approved to treat certain types of breast cancer, Lynparza is approved to treat prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, and ovarian cancer.

For information about these other approved uses, see the following sections:

About breast cancer that Lynparza is approved to treat

Lynparza is approved to treat metastatic breast cancer. This type of breast cancer has spread from the breast to other parts of the body. Lynparza tablets are prescribed for adults with metastatic breast cancer that has all of the following characteristics:

  • BRCA-positive. BRCA-positive cancer has a mutation (abnormal change) or is thought to have a mutation in the BRCA (breast cancer) gene. These mutations are passed down in families, and they’re involved in cancer growth and spread.
  • HER2-negative. HER2-negative cancer has normal levels of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). (In comparison, cancer that has increased levels of HER2 is called HER2-positive.)
  • Prior treatment with chemotherapy. The cancer has been treated in the past with chemotherapy (traditional drugs used to treat cancer). In these cases, chemotherapy was used to keep the cancer from coming back after treatment or to treat metastatic cancer.
  • Prior treatment with hormone therapy. The cancer has been treated in the past with endocrine (hormone) therapy. However, this would only be done if hormone therapy was an appropriate treatment, and if the cancer is considered hormone receptor-positive (HR-positive). (Cancer that is HR-positive needs hormones in order to grow.)

Effectiveness for breast cancer

The effectiveness of Lynparza in treating breast cancer with all of the characteristics described above was tested in a clinical study. In this study, people took either Lynparza tablets or a certain chemotherapy drug that was chosen by their doctor. (Chemotherapy refers to traditional drugs that are used to treat cancer.)

Over the course of 1 year, people taking Lynparza had a 42% lower risk of their cancer getting worse than did people taking chemotherapy. Half of the people taking Lynparza went at least 7 months without their cancer getting worse. In comparison, half of the people taking chemotherapy went at least 4.2 months without their cancer getting worse.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves prescription drugs such as Lynparza to treat certain conditions. In addition to being FDA-approved to treat certain types of ovarian cancer, Lynparza is approved to treat prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer.

For information about these other approved uses, see the following sections:

About ovarian cancer that Lynparza is approved to treat

Lynparza is approved to treat advanced* ovarian cancer** that is BRCA-positive or thought to be BRCA-positive. With BRCA-positive cancer, you have an abnormal change in the breast cancer (BRCA) gene. (The BRCA gene increases your risk for certain types of cancer.) For this use, Lynparza is used alone as a maintenance (ongoing) treatment after your cancer has improved with a first-line† chemotherapy‡ that’s made with platinum.

Lynparza is also approved to treat advanced ovarian cancer that is homologous recombination deficiency-positive (HRD-positive). HRD-positive cancers are a specific type of cancer that can be caused by the BRCA mutation or other mutations. For this use, Lynparza is used as a maintenance (ongoing) treatment along with another cancer drug called bevacizumab (Avastin). And it’s given after your cancer has improved with a first-line chemotherapy that’s made with platinum.

In addition, Lynparza is approved as a maintenance (ongoing) treatment for ovarian cancer that has come back after past therapy. For this use, Lynparza is given when your cancer improves with prior chemotherapy that’s made with platinum.

Lynparza is also approved to treat advanced ovarian cancer that is BRCA-positive. For this use, Lynparza is given after you’ve received at least three different chemotherapy treatments in the past.

* With advanced ovarian cancer, the cancer has spread outside of the ovaries.
** Certain cancers in the fallopian tubes and peritoneum (the lining inside the belly and pelvic area) can be so similar to ovarian cancer that they’re sometimes labeled as ovarian cancer.
† First-line treatment is the first treatment given for a certain condition.
‡ Chemotherapy refers to traditional drugs used to treat cancer.

Effectiveness for ovarian cancer

The effectiveness of Lynparza in treating ovarian cancer has been found in several clinical studies.

One clinical study looked at people with advanced cancer in their ovaries, fallopian tubes, or peritoneum (lining inside the belly and pelvic areas) that was BRCA-positive. These people had taken certain chemotherapy drugs in the past.

In the study, the people were given either Lynparza or a placebo (treatment with no active drug). After more than 3 years of treatment, people taking Lynparza had a 70% lower risk of their cancer getting worse or of dying than did people taking the placebo.

Another clinical study looked at people with advanced cancer in their ovaries, fallopian tubes, or peritoneum that was BRCA-positive. These people’s cancer had come back after past treatments. The people were given either Lynparza or a placebo.

Half of the people who took Lynparza went at least 19.1 months without their cancer getting worse. In comparison, half of the people who took the placebo went at least 5.5 months without their cancer getting worse.

A third study looked at people whose ovarian cancer had been treated in the past by at least three chemotherapy drugs. All of the people in the study took Lynparza. There weren’t any people who took either a placebo or alternative drug. In this study, 34% of the people had their cancer go away, either completely or partly. Half of the people maintained this response for at least 8 months.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves prescription drugs such as Lynparza to treat certain conditions. Specifically, Lynparza is FDA-approved to treat certain types of prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer.

For information about these other approved uses, see the following sections:

In addition, Lynparza is sometimes used off-label for other conditions. Off-label use is when a drug that’s approved to treat one condition is used to treat a different condition. Below, we describe a possible off-label use for Lynparza.

Lynparza for lung cancer (off-label use)

Lynparza isn’t FDA-approved to treat lung cancer. However, clinical studies are starting to look at using Lynparza and other drugs similar to it to treat lung cancer.

For example, one clinical study looked at people with small-cell lung cancer that had come back after past treatment. All of the people in the study were given Lynparza with another cancer drug called temozolomide (Temodar). There weren’t any people in the study who took either a placebo (treatment with no active drug) or alternative drug. In this study, 41.7% of the people had their cancer go away, either completely or partly.

Several other studies are currently ongoing to test the effectiveness of Lynparza in treating lung cancer.

If you’d like to know more about using Lynparza to treat lung cancer, talk with your doctor.

Lynparza and children

Lynparza isn’t approved for use in children. It’s only approved for use in adults with certain types of cancer.

As with all medications, the cost of Lynparza can vary. To find current prices for Lynparza in your area, check out WellRx.com.

The cost you find on WellRx.com is what you may pay without insurance. The actual price you’ll pay depends on your insurance plan, your location, and the pharmacy you use.

Your insurance plan may require you to get prior authorization before approving coverage for Lynparza. This means that your doctor and insurance company will need to communicate about your prescription before the insurance company will cover the drug. The insurance company will review the request and let you and your doctor know if your plan will cover Lynparza.

If you’re not sure if you’ll need to get prior authorization for Lynparza, contact your insurance company.

Financial and insurance assistance

If you need financial support to pay for Lynparza, or if you need help understanding your insurance coverage, help is available.

AstraZeneca, the manufacturer of Lynparza, offers a program called Access 360 that may help lower the cost of Lynparza. For more information and to find out if you’re eligible for support, call 844-ASK-A360 (844-275-2360) or visit the program website.

The Lynparza dosage your doctor prescribes will depend on several factors. These include:

  • how your body responds to treatment
  • other medical conditions you may have
  • other drugs you’re taking with Lynparza

Typically, your doctor will start you on the usual recommended dosage. Then they’ll adjust it over time to reach the amount that’s right for you. Your doctor will ultimately prescribe the smallest dosage that provides the desired effect.

The following information describes dosages that are commonly used or recommended. However, be sure to take the dosage your doctor prescribes for you. Your doctor will determine the best dosage to fit your needs.

Drug forms and strengths

Lynparza comes as tablets that are taken by mouth. It’s available in the following strengths: 100 milligrams (mg) and 150 mg.

Dosage for prostate cancer

The typical dosage of Lynparza to treat prostate cancer is 300 mg (either two 150-mg tablets or three 100-mg tablets) taken twice each day. This gives a total daily dosage of 600 mg per day.

Your doctor may recommend a lower dosage of Lynparza if you have serious side effects or if you’re taking certain other drugs with Lynparza.

Note: When using Lynparza for prostate cancer, you’ll need to either:

  • take another medication with Lynparza to help keep your testosterone levels low, or
  • have had surgery to remove your testicles

Dosage for pancreatic cancer

The typical dosage of Lynparza to treat pancreatic cancer is 300 mg (either two 150-mg tablets or three 100-mg tablets) taken twice each day. This gives a total daily dosage of 600 mg per day.

Your doctor may recommend a lower dosage of Lynparza if you have serious side effects or if you’re taking certain other drugs with Lynparza.

Dosage for breast cancer

The typical dosage of Lynparza to treat breast cancer is 300 mg (either two 150-mg tablets or three 100-mg tablets) taken twice each day. This gives a total daily dosage of 600 mg per day.

Your doctor may recommend a lower dosage of Lynparza if you have serious side effects or if you’re taking certain other drugs with Lynparza.

Dosage for ovarian cancer

Lynparza can be used to treat ovarian cancer. The usual recommended dosage of Lynparza is 300 mg (either two 150-mg tablets or three 100-mg tablets) taken twice each day. This gives a total daily dosage of 600 mg per day.

Your doctor may recommend a lower dosage of Lynparza if you have serious side effects or if you’re taking certain other drugs with Lynparza.

Note: When using Lynparza for advanced ovarian cancer that’s homologous recombination deficiency-positive (HRD-positive), you’ll take Lynparza in combination with another drug called bevacizumab (Avastin). (HRD-positive cancers are a specific type of cancer that can be caused by the BRCA mutation [gene change] or other mutations. For more information about this type of cancer, see the “Lynparza for ovarian cancer” section above.)

What if I miss a dose?

If you miss a dose of Lynparza, just wait to take the medication until it’s time for your next regular dose. Don’t take an extra dose to make up for the missed one. Taking an extra dose of Lynparza will increase your risk of serious side effects.

To help make sure that you don’t miss a dose, try setting a reminder on your phone. A medication timer may be useful, too.

Will I need to use this drug long term?

Lynparza is meant to be used as a long-term treatment. Typically, Lynparza is taken until either your cancer gets worse or you have bothersome or severe side effects. If you and your doctor determine that Lynparza is safe and effective for you, you’ll likely take it long term.

Other drugs are available that can treat your condition. Some may be a better fit for you than others. If you’re interested in finding an alternative to Lynparza, talk with your doctor. They can tell you about other medications that may work well for you.

Note: Some of the drugs listed below are used off-label to treat these specific conditions. Off-label use is when a drug that’s approved to treat one condition is used to treat a different condition.

Alternatives for prostate cancer

Examples of other drugs that may be used to treat prostate cancer include:

  • rucaparib (Rubraca)
  • enzalutamide (Xtandi)
  • abiraterone (Zytiga)
  • sipuleucel-T (Provenge)
  • cabazitaxel (Jevtana)
  • radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo)

Alternatives for pancreatic cancer

Examples of other drugs that may be used to treat pancreatic cancer include:

  • erlotinib (Tarceva)
  • larotrectinib (Vitrakvi)
  • capecitabine (Xeloda)
  • oxaliplatin (Eloxatin)
  • gemcitabine (Gemzar, Infugem)
  • fluorouracil
  • leucovorin (Wellcovorin)
  • nab-paclitaxel (Abraxane)
  • irinotecan (Camptosar)

Alternatives for breast cancer

Examples of other drugs that may be used to treat breast cancer include:

  • talazoparib (Talzenna)
  • carboplatin
  • cisplatin
  • doxorubicin (Doxil)
  • paclitaxel (Abraxane)
  • gemcitabine (Gemzar, Infugem)
  • capecitabine (Xeloda)
  • vinorelbine
  • eribulin (Halaven)

Alternatives for ovarian cancer

Examples of other drugs that may be used to treat ovarian cancer include:

  • niraparib (Zejula)
  • rucaparib (Rubraca)
  • bevacizumab (Avastin, Mvasi, Zirabev)
  • carboplatin
  • gemcitabine (Gemzar, Infugem)
  • doxorubicin (Doxil)
  • paclitaxel (Abraxane)
  • cisplatin
  • etoposide
  • topotecan (Hycamtin)

You may wonder how Lynparza compares with other medications that are prescribed for similar uses. Here we look at how Lynparza and Rubraca are alike and different.

Ingredients

Lynparza contains the drug olaparib, while Rubraca contains the drug rucaparib. These medications both belong to the same class of drugs called poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors.

Uses

Lynparza and Rubraca are both approved to treat certain forms of cancer in your ovaries, fallopian tubes, or peritoneum (lining inside your belly and pelvic area).

These drugs are both used as maintenance treatment in adults. Maintenance treatment is used to keep cancer that’s already been treated from coming back. For this use, each of the drugs is prescribed to treat cancer that’s been treated in the past with certain chemotherapy drugs. These chemotherapy drugs include cisplatin and carboplatin. (Chemotherapy drugs are traditional drugs used to treat cancer.)

Lynparza and Rubraca are used as maintenance treatment in adults with BRCA-positive or BRCA-negative forms of cancer. BRCA-positive cancer has a mutation (abnormal change) in the BRCA (breast cancer) gene. BRCA mutations are involved in cancer growth and spread of breast and ovarian cancer.

In addition, Lynparza is used to treat:

  • certain forms of BRCA-positive, HER2-negative* breast cancer
  • BRCA-positive, advanced cancer in your ovaries, fallopian tubes, or peritoneum, after it’s been treated in the past with at least three chemotherapy drugs
  • certain forms of BRCA-positive pancreatic cancer

Rubraca is also used to treat BRCA-positive, advanced cancer in your ovaries, fallopian tubes, or peritoneum, after it’s been treated in the past with at least two chemotherapy drugs.

In addition, Lynparza and Rubraca are both approved to treat prostate cancer that’s metastatic† and castration-resistant‡. But these drugs are used for types of prostate cancer with different gene changes.

* HER-2 negative cancer has normal levels of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). (In comparison, cancer that has increased levels of HER2 is called HER2-positive.)
† With metastatic prostate cancer, the cancer has spread from your prostate to other parts of your body.
‡ Castration-resistant prostate cancer doesn’t improve after treatment with certain drugs that lower your testosterone levels or following surgery to remove your testicles.

Drug forms and administration

Lynparza and Rubraca both come as tablets. And they’re each taken by mouth twice each day.

Side effects and risks

Lynparza and Rubraca contain similar drugs. Therefore, these medications can cause very similar side effects. Below are examples of these side effects.

More common side effects

These lists contain examples of more common side effects that can occur with Lynparza, with Rubraca, or with both drugs (when taken individually).

  • Can occur with Lynparza:
    • joint pain
    • muscle pain
  • Can occur with Rubraca:
  • Can occur with both Lynparza and Rubraca:
    • fatigue (lack of energy)
    • nausea or vomiting
    • belly pain or bloating
    • blood disorders, such as anemia (low red blood cell level)
    • altered taste in your mouth
    • loss of appetite
    • stomatitis (inflammation in the lining inside your mouth)
    • weakness
    • diarrhea or constipation
    • respiratory tract infection, such as the common cold and the flu
    • headache
    • dizziness

Serious side effects

These lists contain examples of serious side effects that can occur with Lynparza, with Rubraca, or with both drugs (when taken individually).

  • Can occur with Lynparza:
  • Can occur with Rubraca:
    • few unique serious side effects
  • Can occur with both Lynparza and Rubraca:
    • severe allergic reaction

Effectiveness

Lynparza and Rubraca have different FDA-approved uses, but they’re both used to treat certain forms of ovarian cancer that have been treated in the past with certain chemotherapy drugs.

These drugs haven’t been directly compared in clinical studies. But separate studies have found both Lynparza and Rubraca to be effective for treating certain forms of ovarian cancer.

Costs

Lynparza and Rubraca are both brand-name drugs. There are currently no generic forms of either drug. Brand-name medications usually cost more than generics.

You can view cost estimates for Lynparza and Rubraca on WellRx.com. But the actual price you’ll pay for any drug depends on your insurance plan, your location, and the pharmacy you use.

You may wonder how Lynparza compares with other medications that are prescribed for similar uses. Here we look at how Lynparza and Talzenna are alike and different.

Ingredients

Lynparza contains the active drug olaparib, while Talzenna contains the active drug talazoparib. These medications both belong to the same class of drugs called poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors.

Uses

Lynparza and Talzenna are both prescribed for adults with breast cancer that has all of the following characteristics:

  • BRCA-positive. BRCA-positive cancer has mutations (abnormal changes) in the BRCA (breast cancer) gene. These mutations are involved in cancer growth and spread.
  • HER2-negative. HER2-negative cancer has normal levels of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). (In comparison,cancer that has increased levels of HER2 is called HER2-positive.)
  • Metastatic. Metastatic breast cancer has spread from the breast to other areas of your body.

In order to use Lynparza, people with hormone receptor-positive (HR-positive) cancer should have received past treatment with hormone therapy. But this would only be done if hormone therapy was an appropriate treatment. (Cancer that’s HR-positive needs hormones in order to grow.)

In addition, Talzenna can also be used to treat BRCA-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer that’s locally advanced. With locally advanced breast cancer, the cancer has spread from the breast to areas that are near the breast.

Lynparza is also used to treat certain types of ovarian cancer. In addition, it’s approved to treat certain forms of BRCA-positive pancreatic cancer and certain forms of prostate cancer.

Drug forms and administration

Lynparza comes as tablets that are taken by mouth twice each day.

Talzenna comes as capsules that are taken by mouth once each day.

Side effects and risks

Lynparza and Talzenna contain similar drugs. Therefore, these medications can cause very similar side effects. Below are examples of these side effects.

More common side effects

These lists contain examples of more common side effects that can occur with Lynparza, with Talzenna, or with both drugs (when taken individually).

  • Can occur with Lynparza:
    • joint pain
    • muscle pain
    • respiratory tract infection, including the common cold and flu
  • Can occur with Talzenna:
  • Can occur with both Lynparza and Talzenna:
    • blood disorders, such as anemia (low red blood cell level)
    • nausea or vomiting
    • loss of appetite
    • diarrhea or constipation
    • headache
    • altered taste in your mouth
    • stomatitis (inflammation in the lining inside your mouth)
    • fatigue (lack of energy)
    • weakness
    • dizziness

Serious side effects

These lists contain examples of serious side effects that can occur with Lynparza, with Talzenna, or with both drugs (when taken individually).

  • Can occur with Lynparza:
  • Can occur with Talzenna:
    • few unique serious side effects
  • Can occur with both Lynparza and Talzenna:
    • severe allergic reaction

Effectiveness

Lynparza and Talzenna have different FDA-approved uses, but they’re both used to treat metastatic breast cancer that is BRCA-positive and HER2-negative.

These drugs haven’t been directly compared in clinical studies. But studies have found both Lynparza and Talzenna to be effective for treating certain forms of breast cancer.

Costs

Lynparza and Talzenna are both brand-name drugs. There are currently no generic forms of either drug. Brand-name medications usually cost more than generics.

You can view cost estimates for Lynparza and Talzenna on WellRx.com. The actual price you’ll pay for either drug depends on your insurance plan, your location, and the pharmacy you use.

There’s no known interaction between Lynparza and alcohol. However, the American Cancer Society recommends that some people avoid drinking alcohol during cancer treatment. This is because it’s thought that certain side effects of cancer treatments may be worsened by drinking alcohol.

These worsened side effects may include:

Talk with your doctor to see whether it’s safe for you to drink alcohol during Lynparza treatment.

Lynparza can interact with several other medications. It can also interact with certain supplements as well as certain foods.

Different interactions can cause different effects. For instance, some interactions can interfere with how well a drug works. Other interactions can increase side effects or make them more severe.

Lynparza and other medications

Below are lists of medications that can interact with Lynparza. These lists do not contain all the drugs that may interact with Lynparza.

Before taking Lynparza, talk with your doctor and pharmacist. Tell them about all prescription, over-the-counter, and other drugs you take. Also tell them about any vitamins, herbs, and supplements you use. Sharing this information can help you avoid potential interactions.

If you have questions about drug interactions that may affect you, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

Lynparza and certain cancer drugs

Taking Lynparza with other cancer drugs that decrease your immune system’s ability to fight infection will increase your risk of dangerous side effects. These side effects can include having serious infections. However, in some cases, your doctor may prescribe more than one cancer treatment for you at a time.

If you need to take more than one cancer drug at a time, talk with your doctor about the safest treatment combination.

Lynparza and certain antifungal drugs

Taking Lynparza with certain antifungal drugs (drugs used to treat fungal infections) can increase the level of Lynparza in your body. This increases your risk of side effects from Lynparza.

Examples of antifungal drugs that can increase Lynparza levels include:

  • ketoconazole (Extina, Nizoral A-D)
  • itraconazole (Onmel, Sporanox)
  • voriconazole (Vfend)
  • posaconazole (Noxafil)
  • fluconazole (Diflucan)

If possible, you should avoid taking these antifungals during Lynparza treatment. If you need to take one of these drugs with Lynparza, your doctor will reduce your Lynparza dosage while you’re taking the drugs together.

Lynparza and certain HIV drugs

Taking Lynparza with certain drugs that are used to treat HIV can increase your risk of side effects from Lynparza. This is because some HIV medications increase the level of Lynparza in your body.

Examples of HIV drugs that can increase Lynparza levels include:

  • lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra)
  • indinavir (Crixivan)
  • saquinavir (Invirase)
  • nelfinavir (Viracept)
  • atazanavir (Reyataz)
  • fosamprenavir (Lexiva)

If you need to use one of the drugs listed above, your doctor will decrease your Lynparza dosage while you’re taking the drugs together.

Taking Lynparza with certain other HIV drugs can decrease how effective Lynparza is in treating your condition. Examples of these drugs are efavirenz (Sustiva) and etravirine (Intelence).

If you need treatment for HIV while you’re taking Lynparza, your doctor may prescribe a different HIV drug than those listed above. They may also monitor you more closely for side effects or decreased effectiveness of Lynparza.

Lynparza and certain antibiotics

Taking Lynparza with certain antibiotics can increase your risk of having side effects from Lynparza. This is because some antibiotics increase the level of Lynparza in your body.

Examples of antibiotics that can increase Lynparza levels include:

  • clarithromycin (Biaxin XL)
  • ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
  • erythromycin (EryPed)

If you need to use antibiotics while you’re taking Lynparza, your doctor will likely recommend an antibiotic that’s different from those listed above. If you need to take one of the antibiotics listed above, your doctor will decrease your Lynparza dosage while you’re taking the drugs together.

In addition, taking Lynparza with an antibiotic called nafcillin can decrease how effective Lynparza is in treating your condition. If you need to take an antibiotic with Lynparza, your doctor will likely prescribe an antibiotic other than nafcillin, if available. But if you need to take Lynparza with nafcillin, your doctor will monitor you closely for decreased effectiveness of Lynparza.

Lynparza and certain seizure drugs

Taking Lynparza with certain seizure drugs can decrease how effective Lynparza is in treating your condition. This is because certain drugs used to treat seizures will lower the level of Lynparza in your body.

Examples of seizure drugs that can reduce Lynparza levels include:

  • phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek)
  • carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Equetro, Tegretol)
  • oxcarbazepine (Oxtellar XR, Trileptal)
  • phenobarbital

If you need to take Lynparza with a seizure medication, your doctor will likely recommend a seizure drug other than those listed above. If you need to take one of the drugs listed above with Lynparza, your doctor will probably monitor you more closely than usual. This will allow them to make sure that Lynparza is effective to treat your condition.

Lynparza and modafinil

Taking Lynparza with the stimulant medication modafinil (Provigil) can lower Lynparza levels in your body. This can decrease how effective Lynparza is in treating your condition.

If you need to take Lynparza with modafinil, your doctor will monitor you closely for decreased effectiveness of Lynparza. Or they may even prescribe a stimulant drug other than modafinil for you.

Lynparza and herbs and supplements

Certain herbs and supplements may interact with Lynparza. One example is the herbal supplement St. John’s wort, which is discussed below.

Check with your doctor or pharmacist before using any herbal products or dietary supplements while you’re taking Lynparza. They’ll let you know if it’s safe for you to use the product with Lynparza.

Lynparza and St. John’s wort

Taking Lynparza with St. John’s wort isn’t recommended. This is because St. John’s wort can decrease Lynparza levels in your body. This can make Lynparza less effective in treating your condition.

Lynparza and foods

Certain foods may interact with Lynparza. Grapefruit and Seville oranges, which are discussed below, are examples of foods that interact with Lynparza.

If you have questions about eating certain foods during Lynparza treatment, talk with your doctor or pharmacist.

Lynparza and grapefruit

Eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice during Lynparza treatment is not recommended. This is because grapefruit can increase the level of Lynparza in your body, which increases your risk of side effects from the drug.

Lynparza and Seville oranges

Eating Seville oranges or drinking juice from Seville oranges during Lynparza treatment isn’t recommended. This fruit can increase the level of Lynparza in your body, which increases your risk of side effects from the drug.

Here are answers to some frequently asked questions about Lynparza.

Is Lynparza being studied in clinical trials for other uses?

Yes, it is. Lynparza is currently approved to treat certain types of prostate, pancreatic, breast, and ovarian cancer. But it’s also being studied for other uses in several clinical trials. Current studies are testing Lynparza’s effectiveness in treating:

You can find lists of ongoing clinical trials at ClinicalTrials.gov. Some of these trials are even recruiting participants.

If you’d like to know more about participating in clinical trials of Lynparza, talk with your doctor.

Is Lynparza a chemotherapy drug?

No, Lynparza isn’t typically considered chemotherapy. In some definitions, chemotherapy drugs are any drugs that are used to treat cancer. However, a more precise definition of chemotherapy describes it as a “systemic” treatment for cancer.

Systemic treatment means that the treatment can affect your whole body. Specifically, chemotherapy affects cells that are rapidly multiplying (making more cells). This includes both cancer cells and other healthy cells in your body. Because chemotherapy affects both cancer cells and some healthy cells, it can often lead to many unwanted side effects.

Lynparza is considered a targeted therapy. This means that it targets and attacks only parts of specific cells, such as cancer cells, instead of affecting all rapidly multiplying cells. Because Lynparza only attacks certain cells, it’s thought to do less damage to your healthy cells. This can often lead to different, and sometimes fewer, side effects than chemotherapy drugs cause.

Will I need to have any blood tests during Lynparza treatment?

Yes, you will. Your doctor will order blood tests for you before, during, and after your treatment with Lynparza. These blood tests will check the level of your red blood cells and white blood cells. Checking these tests lets your doctor make sure that your blood cell levels are within a healthy range.

You’ll likely have blood tests done every month during treatment. However, if you have decreased blood cell levels over a long period of time, you may need to have blood tests done every week.

Based on the results of your blood tests, your doctor will recommend how often you’ll need to have additional blood tests.

Can I take Lynparza for breast cancer if I’ve already had a mastectomy?

Yes, some people may need treatment with Lynparza after they’ve had a mastectomy. With a mastectomy, surgery is done to remove breast tissue.

If you’re planning on having a mastectomy, or if you’ve already had this surgery, talk with your doctor about breast cancer treatment options. They can recommend therapies to help lower the risk of your cancer coming back.

Can Lynparza be used for both men and women with breast cancer?

Yes, Lynparza can be used for both females and males with breast cancer.

In fact, Lynparza can be used in either men or women with metastatic breast cancer (cancer that has spread from the breast to other parts of the body). It’s prescribed for adults with metastatic breast cancer that has all of the following characteristics:

  • BRCA-positive. BRCA-positive cancer has a mutation (abnormal change) or is thought to have a mutation in the BRCA (breast cancer) gene. These mutations are passed down in families, and they’re involved in cancer growth and spread.
  • HER2-negative. HER2-negative cancer has normal levels of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). (In comparison, cancer that has increased levels of HER2 is called HER2-positive.)
  • Prior treatment with chemotherapy. The cancer has been treated in the past with chemotherapy (traditional drugs used to treat cancer). In these cases, chemotherapy was used to keep the cancer from coming back after treatment or to treat metastatic cancer.
  • Prior treatment with hormone therapy. The cancer has been treated in the past with endocrine (hormone) therapy. However, this would only be done if hormone therapy was an appropriate treatment, and if the cancer is considered hormone receptor-positive (HR-positive). (Cancer that’s HR-positive needs hormones in order to grow.)

You should take Lynparza according to your doctor’s or healthcare provider’s instructions.

When to take

Lynparza should be taken by mouth twice each day. Try to take your morning and evening dose about 12 hours apart from each other.

To help make sure that you don’t miss a dose, try setting a reminder on your phone. A medication timer may be useful, too.

Taking Lynparza with food

Lynparza can be taken with or without food.

Can Lynparza be crushed, split, or chewed?

No, Lynparza tablets shouldn’t be crushed, split, or chewed. Instead, the tablets must be swallowed whole.

If you have trouble swallowing pills, talk with your doctor or pharmacist. They can recommend ways to help make taking your medication easier for you.

Lynparza is used to treat certain types of prostate, pancreatic, breast, and ovarian cancer. For more information about these types of cancer and how Lynparza is used to treat them, see the following sections above:

What happens in prostate, pancreatic, ovarian, and breast cancer?

In prostate, pancreatic, ovarian, and breast cancer, some of the cancer cells become damaged by natural processes. Damaged cells use the poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) enzyme to help repair their damage. (Enzymes are certain types of proteins.) When damaged cancer cells are repaired, it allows the cancer cells to continue growing and spreading.

What does Lynparza do?

Lynparza contains the drug olaparib. It belongs to a class of drugs called PARP enzyme inhibitors. These drugs work by blocking the activity of the PARP enzyme.

With the action of PARP blocked, the damaged cancer cells can’t repair themselves. This causes the cells to stop growing and to eventually die. This ultimately leads to fewer cancer cells in your body. For some people, it leads to no cancer cells at all in their body.

Lynparza also has this cancer-killing activity in cancers that are BRCA-positive. This type of cancer has a mutation (abnormal change) in the BRCA (breast cancer) gene. This gene is involved in cancer growth and spread of certain types of cancer.

The BRCA gene normally tells cells to make a protein that, like PARP, also helps to repair damaged cells. In people with the BRCA gene mutation, their cancer cells don’t have this option for repairing damaged cells.

When Lynparza is used, it blocks the PARP pathway for repairing damaged cancer cells. This means that for people with the BRCA gene mutation, their damaged cells lack two main ways to fix themselves. This helps lead to the death of cancer cells in their body.

How long does it take to work?

Lynparza starts working in your body within hours after you’ve taken your first dose. Your doctor will order certain tests to monitor how well the drug is working to treat your cancer. They’ll check your treatment progress every week to every month.

There aren’t any studies that have looked at using Lynparza during human pregnancies.

However, animal studies have found that Lynparza does cause harm to a growing fetus when it’s given to a pregnant female. Because these studies have shown possible serious and harmful effects to fetuses, taking Lynparza during pregnancy is not recommended. But keep in mind that animal studies don’t always predict what will happen in humans.

If you’re able to become pregnant, your doctor will likely have you take a pregnancy test before you start using Lynparza. This testing is done to make sure that you aren’t pregnant before you start taking this drug.

You should use birth control to prevent pregnancy during treatment. For more information about birth control recommendations, see the following section called “Lynparza and birth control.”

Because Lynparza may cause serious and harmful effects to a developing fetus, pregnancy should be avoided during treatment with this drug. Effective birth control should be used by both males and females using Lynparza.

Effective birth control methods include birth control pills, patches, injections, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and condoms. Talk with your doctor about the best form or forms of birth control for you and your partner.

Birth control for women using Lynparza

If you’re a female who’s able to become pregnant, you should use effective birth control while you’re taking Lynparza. And you should continue using birth control for at least 6 months after your last dose of the drug.

Birth control for men using Lynparza

If you’re a male who has a female sexual partner who’s able to become pregnant, you should use effective birth control (such as condoms) while you’re taking Lynparza. You should continue to use birth control for least 3 months after your last dose of the drug.

You should also avoid donating sperm while you’re taking Lynparza. And you should continue to avoid donating sperm for at least 3 months after your last dose of the drug.

It’s not known if Lynparza passes into human breastmilk. It’s also not known what effects the drug might have on a child who’s breastfed.

Because of the serious nature of Lynparza’s side effects, you shouldn’t breastfeed while taking this drug. You should also avoid breastfeeding for at least 1 month after your last dose of Lynparza.

If you have questions about the safety of breastfeeding while using Lynparza, talk with your doctor.

Before taking Lynparza, talk with your doctor about your health history. Lynparza may not be right for you if you have certain medical conditions or other factors affecting your health. These include:

  • Blood disorders. Lynparza shouldn’t be taken by people who have severe blood disorders. These disorders include myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML), which are certain types of blood cancer. Your doctor will check your blood cell levels before you start taking Lynparza. This helps your doctor to determine if the drug is safe for you. They’ll also continue to monitor your blood cell levels during your Lynparza treatment. If your blood cell levels become unsafe during treatment, your doctor may recommend that you temporarily or permanently stop Lynparza treatment.
  • Pneumonitis. Lynparza shouldn’t be taken by people with pneumonitis (inflammation in the lungs). This condition can occur after using certain substances or drugs, such as Lynparza. If you have pneumonitis during Lynparza treatment, your doctor will likely have you stop taking Lynparza. If you’ve had pneumonitis in the past, be sure to tell your doctor. They’ll determine if Lynparza is safe for you.
  • Blood clots. Some people taking Lynparza with hormone therapy have developed blood clots. These blood clots were usually found in their legs or lungs. If you have a clotting disorder or a high risk for developing blood clots, talk with your doctor. They can determine whether or not Lynparza is safe for you.
  • Liver disease. It’s not known how safe Lynparza is for people with severe liver disease. Talk with your doctor about the health of your liver to find out if Lynparza is safe for you.
  • Kidney disease. It’s not known how safe Lynparza is for people with either severe kidney disease or end-stage kidney disease. Talk with your doctor about the health of your kidneys to find out if Lynparza is safe for you.
  • Pregnancy. Taking Lynparza during pregnancy is not recommended. In fact, both men and women taking Lynparza should use contraception during and after treatment. For more information, please see the “Lynparza and pregnancy” and “Lynparza and birth control” sections above.
  • Breastfeeding. You shouldn’t breastfeed while taking Lynparza or for at least 1 month after your last dose of the drug. For more information, please see the “Lynparza and breastfeeding” section above.

Note: For more information about the potential negative effects of Lynparza, see the “Lynparza side effects” section above.

Using more than the recommended dosage of Lynparza can lead to serious side effects. However, there haven’t been any studies done to show what would happen if someone overdosed on Lynparza.

What to do in case of overdose

If you think you’ve taken too much of this drug, call your doctor. You can also call the American Association of Poison Control Centers at 800-222-1222 or use their online tool. But if your symptoms are severe, call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room right away.

When you get Lynparza from the pharmacy, the pharmacist will add an expiration date to the label on the bottle. This date is typically 1 year from the date they dispensed the medication.

The expiration date helps guarantee that the medication is effective during this time. The current stance of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is to avoid using expired medications. If you have unused medication that has gone past the expiration date, talk to your pharmacist about whether you might still be able to use it.

Storage

How long a medication remains good can depend on many factors, including how and where you store it.

Lynparza tablets should be stored at room temperature, which is around 68°F to 77°F (20°C to 25°C), in a tightly sealed container until their expiration date. The medication should also be kept away from light. Avoid storing this medication in areas where it could get damp or wet, such as in bathrooms.

Disposal

If you no longer need to take Lynparza and have leftover medication, it’s important to dispose of it safely. This helps prevent others, including children and pets, from taking the drug by accident. It also helps keep the drug from harming the environment.

The FDA website provides several useful tips on medication disposal. You can also ask your pharmacist for information on how to dispose of your medication.

The following information is provided for clinicians and other healthcare professionals.

Indications

Lynparza is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in adults with ovarian cancer in one of several situations:

  • As maintenance treatment for advanced epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian cancer with deleterious or suspected deleterious BRCA mutation (germline or somatic) that has either completely or partially responded to first-line platinum-based treatment.
  • As maintenance treatment in combination with bevacizumab (Avastin) for advanced epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian cancer that has either completely or partially responded to first-line platinum-based treatment and is homologous recombination deficiency-positive defined by:
    • deleterious or suspected deleterious germline BRCA mutations, and/or
    • genomic instability
  • As maintenance treatment for recurrent epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian cancer that has either completely or partially responded to platinum-based treatment.
  • As treatment for advanced ovarian cancer with deleterious or suspected deleterious BRCA mutation (germline) that has been treated with three or more previous chemotherapy treatments.

Lynparza is also FDA-approved for use in adults with metastatic breast cancer that has all of the following characteristics:

  • deleterious or suspected deleterious BCRA mutation (germline)
  • HER2-negative
  • previous chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, or metastatic setting

For adults with hormone receptor-positive, metastatic breast cancer that has all of the characteristics described above, in order to be appropriate candidates for Lynparza, they should have either:

  • received past treatment with endocrine therapy, or
  • be considered ineligible for endocrine therapy

Lynparza is also FDA-approved for use in adults with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer with deleterious or suspected deleterious somatic homologous recombination repair gene mutation that has worsened after treatment with either enzalutamide or abiraterone. For this use, Lynparza is given either with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog or following bilateral orchiectomy.

Lynparza is also FDA-approved for use as maintenance treatment in adults with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma with deleterious or suspected deleterious BRCA mutation that has not worsened after at least 16 weeks with a chemotherapy agent containing platinum.

Mechanism of action

Lynparza is a poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) enzyme inhibitor. There are three PARP enzymes involved in DNA repair and DNA transcription. Olaparib inhibits the activity of PARP enzymes, blocking this pathway for DNA repair.

Mutation of the BRCA gene also leads to reduced ability of cells to repair DNA and cellular damage. Lynparza places additional restrictions on growth and division of cancer cells in people with the BRCA mutation. This action leads to cytotoxicity.

Pharmacokinetics and metabolism

Lynparza tablets reach peak concentration within approximately 1.5 hours after oral administration. Time to steady state concentration for Lynparza tablets is not provided by the manufacturer.

In vitro studies found that plasma protein binding of olaparib is approximately 82%. Metabolism occurs primarily via CYP3A4 and CYP3A5.

Elimination half-life is approximately 15 hours. About 44% is eliminated in urine and 42% is eliminated in the feces.

Contraindications

There are no contraindications to Lynparza use.

Storage

Lynparza tablets should be stored at room temperature, which is around 68°F to 77°F (20°C to 25°C), in their original container and be protected from moisture until their expiration date.

Disclaimer: Medical News Today has made every effort to make certain that all information is factually correct, comprehensive, and up-to-date. However, this article should not be used as a substitute for the knowledge and expertise of a licensed healthcare professional. You should always consult your doctor or other healthcare professional before taking any medication. The drug information contained herein is subject to change and is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. The absence of warnings or other information for a given drug does not indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for all patients or all specific uses.