Psoriasis is a chronic, noncontagious skin condition that causes skin cells to build up and form red, inflamed patches.
Following decades of research, doctors remain unclear as to the exact causes of psoriasis. But they understand that the immune system, genetics, and environmental factors can play a key role.
This article will look at psoriasis and the immune system and how to boost immunity. It will then explore possible complications of psoriasis, as well as triggers and treatments.
In an autoimmune disease, specific triggers cause the immune system to malfunction. These triggers vary between individuals. But in the case of psoriasis, they can include stress and skin trauma, such as insect bites, sunburn, and scratches.
In psoriasis, the activated immune system mistakenly launches an inflammatory response. It begins to attack healthy cells as though they were harmful invading pathogens. White blood cells called T helper lymphocytes, or T cells, become irregularly active and produce excess signaling molecules.
These cytokine molecules cause the blood vessels in the skin to widen. In turn, this causes white blood cells to accumulate, and keratinocytes, which make up the outer layer of the skin, to multiply much faster than usual.
In psoriasis, the process of a cell dividing, maturing, migrating to the skin’s surface, and sloughing off is complete in as few as 3–7 days, compared with 3–4 weeks in a person without psoriasis.
The result of this skin buildup is thickened, flushed, and scaly skin plaques.
There are many different types of psoriasis.
Researchers believe that a combination of factors can cause an individual to develop psoriasis.
In some cases, genetics can be a cause, as the condition often runs in families. If a child has one affected parent, they have a
But some individuals with no family history may also develop psoriasis. This finding highlights the effect environmental factors such as stress, smoking, and diet may have on psoriasis development.
Having psoriasis does not necessarily mean a person is immunocompromised.
But some people take medication for psoriasis that reduces immune function, called immunosuppressant drugs. This can mean a person is immunocompromised. An example of an immunosuppressant drug that doctors use to treat psoriasis is adalimumab.
Having a properly functioning immune system is essential to health.
There are various ways that individuals with psoriasis can regulate their immune systems through diet and exercise.
According to a
The Mediterranean diet consists of the following:
|High consumption of:||Low consumption of:|
|extra-virgin olive oil|
People use this yellow spice in cooking and natural medicines. Turmeric may positively impact someone’s immune response.
According to one
So, turmeric may reduce symptoms of many conditions that inflammation can worsen, including psoriasis.
Garlic may boost the immune system.
The researchers recommended further research to confirm the immune-modulating effects of garlic.
Regular exercise can improve immune system functions.
Psoriasis appears on the skin and nails, but problems with the immune system that cause psoriasis can cause other conditions alongside it.
Psoriatic arthritis can be a painful and destructive inflammatory type of arthritis. But symptoms may reduce with treatment.
Psoriasis can mean a person has a
This is possibly due to the inflammation that occurs with all the conditions.
People with psoriasis may feel emotional distress that disrupts their regular social interactions or working life.
According to a
Individuals with psoriasis may have different triggers, and the condition
Common triggers that can cause flare-ups in people with psoriasis can include:
- injuries to the skin, including tattoos or shaving cuts
- dry, cold weather
- sunburn and hot weather
If psoriasis is mild, treatment with a skin moisturizer, medicated shampoo, and exposure to sunlight may be enough to alleviate symptoms.
But most people require medical therapies to manage their psoriasis. Options include:
Corticosteroid ointments, gels, and lotions of varying strengths can reduce inflammation and itching.
Long-term use of potent topical corticosteroids can cause skin thinning and damage. So, doctors may recommend forms of vitamin D and vitamin A instead of, or in conjunction with, steroid use. They may also prescribe corticosteroid-free, immune-modulating topicals for delicate areas instead.
Doctors can use UV radiation to treat moderate to severe psoriasis.
They may prescribe UVB in combination with other topical medications and reserve UVA for psoriasis that does not respond to other treatments.
Doctors remain unclear as to the exact causes of psoriasis. There is evidence for genetic involvement, as those with a family history of psoriasis are more likely to have it themselves.
Psoriasis appears to be an autoimmune response, with specific triggers causing the immune system to react against healthy tissue.
Although it cannot be cured, individuals can manage the symptoms with various therapies. These include topical corticosteroid creams, phototherapy, and biologic immunosuppressant agents.
Further research is needed to understand the inheritance and immune system involvement of psoriasis.