Solitary plasmacytoma is a rare condition that is similar to multiple myeloma. However, it describes a single, solid mass of abnormal plasma cells in the bone or soft tissue. People who receive a diagnosis of solitary plasmacytoma may go on to develop multiple myeloma.
Solitary plasmacytoma refers to a single abnormal mass, or tumor, that consists of plasma cells, known as a
The name solitary plasmacytoma
There are two main types of solitary plasmacytoma: Solitary bone plasmacytoma (SBP) and solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (SEP). These terms describe whether the clump of abnormal plasma cells occurs in the bone or soft tissue.
In this article, we will discuss solitary plasmacytoma, including its potential causes, treatments, and prognosis.
Some experts describe these terms as different phases of the same condition, which involves plasma cells growing in an unusual, uncontrolled fashion. However, one important difference between MGUS and plasmacytoma is that the former is
At present, there is no known cause of solitary plasmacytoma. However, some evidence indicates that factors such as genetics, viral infections, and inhaled irritants may contribute.
Potential risk factors for the condition
Incidence rates may be 2–3 times higher in males than females. Some evidence also suggests that incidence is 30% higher in African Americans than in Caucasians, and Asian individuals have a 50% lower lifetime risk of the condition. There may also be a higher risk for those with a family history of the condition.
Signs and symptoms of solitary plasmacytoma can vary slightly depending on the location of the mass of abnormal cells. Typically, a person
A 2020 paper notes that common symptoms of solitary plasmacytoma may include:
- local pain
- spinal cord compression
- pathologic bone fracture
- laboratory analyses of bodily fluids
- biopsies, which involve removing small amounts of tissue for analysis
- imaging studies, which can help doctors to locate the presence of plasmacytomas
Using these results and comparing them to
The standard form of treatment for solitary plasmacytoma is radiation therapy. This involves focusing radiation, similar to X-rays, on the plasmacytoma to kill the abnormal cells. These cells are highly sensitive to radiation, and as they are localized masses, it is easier to target them with this type of treatment. Doctors may be able to achieve an
Other treatment options for solitary plasmacytoma
As long as no other plasmacytomas are present later on, the outlook for the condition is
Individuals with SBP may be at a higher risk of progressing to multiple myeloma than those with SEP. However, some
A 2019 retrospective analysis of solitary plasmacytoma cases in the United Kingdom and Brazil suggests a 5-year survival rate of almost
Solitary plasmacytoma refers to a single mass of abnormal plasma cells that can occur in bone or soft tissue. Health experts usually consider solitary plasmacytoma as an early form of multiple myeloma. As this condition may develop into multiple myeloma, it is important to closely monitor the condition.
There is still no known cause of solitary plasmacytoma. Symptoms typically include local pain, and doctors can perform tests to detect the abnormal mass. Treatment will usually involve radiation therapy. As long as no other plasmacytomas are present, the outlook is generally positive.