The COVID-19 vaccines are safe for people with type 2 diabetes. People with diabetes have a higher risk for severe illness and death from COVID-19, and vaccines can help to prevent these outcomes.

In this article, we discuss the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in people with type 2 diabetes. We also examine the risks of COVID-19 for people with diabetes and the effect of the vaccines on diabetes.

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According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the COVID-19 vaccines are safe and effective. Vaccines must pass rigorous development and testing procedures to demonstrate their safety for authorized use in the United States.

The COVID-19 vaccines may cause mild side effects that tend to go away after a few days, including:

  • pain and inflammation at the injection site
  • fever and chills
  • muscle ache and headache
  • tiredness
  • nausea

These side effects are typical and indicate that the body is building up protection against COVID-19.

The CDC recently prioritized people with diabetes receiving the vaccines, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA).

People with diabetes are not more likely to report side effects from the COVID-19 vaccines than those without diabetes.

But people with diabetes are more likely to experience severe illness and death from COVID-19 than people without diabetes. This increased risk applies to people with types 1 or 2 diabetes. The vaccines may lower the risk of these adverse outcomes.

The vaccines are effective at helping prevent severe illness and death from COVID-19 infection. They may also reduce the risk of getting the virus that causes COVID-19.

The Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson vaccines are 72–95% effective at helping prevent COVID-19. These are the only three vaccines currently available in the U.S. Around 8–9% of people included in the major clinical trials for the Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson vaccines had type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

The evidence indicates that these vaccines are highly effective at helping prevent severe illness from COVID-19, including in people with diabetes.

There have been few robust studies that researchers specifically designed to assess these effects in people with diabetes. But the limited data available suggest that the vaccines are still effective.

More research is necessary to closely assess some issues, such as which vaccine is most suitable for diabetes or the differences in response between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

All data and statistics are based on publicly available data at the time of publication. Some information may be out of date.

According to the ADA, there is insufficient information to suggest that people with diabetes are more likely to get SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19 disease). But they are more likely to experience severe illness and death from COVID-19.

Several studies indicate that people with type 2 diabetes have a 3.4 times higher risk for hospitalization or severe illness from COVID-19 than people without diabetes. They are also twice as likely to die in the hospital than those without diabetes.

People with diabetes who get the vaccine may experience mild side effects. But these side effects should only last a few days, and the benefits could be lifesaving.

The COVID-19 vaccines do not interact with most over-the-counter (OTC) medications or medications for most chronic health conditions, including diabetes.

But the CDC recommends against taking OTC medications to help prevent side effects before having the vaccine. People who regularly take these medications for other reasons should continue using them.

People should also avoid taking antihistamines to help prevent an allergic reaction before having a COVID-19 vaccine.

Vaccines can cause temporary spikes in blood sugar levels within 48 hours of the injection. This is because the vaccines can cause side effects that increase blood sugar levels.

It is important for anyone with diabetes to closely monitor their blood sugar levels for a few days after receiving the vaccine.

Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson vaccines are all authorized and recommended for use in the U.S. They are all safe and effective for helping prevent COVID-19.

There are some differences between the vaccines. For example, Pfizer-BioNTech has approval for use in people over 12 years old, but Moderna and Johnson & Johnson have approval for individuals over 18 years old.

All the vaccines become fully effective around 2 weeks after the shot. The Johnson & Johnson vaccine only requires one shot, whereas Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna require two shots.

There are some signs that the Johnson & Johnson vaccine is less effective at helping prevent COVID-19 in people with diabetes.

It may not be possible to choose a vaccine due to limited supplies across the U.S. But people with diabetes can be confident that all three vaccines are safe and effective at helping prevent COVID-19.

The COVID-19 vaccines are safe for people with type 2 diabetes. There is no evidence to suggest people with diabetes are more likely to experience adverse side effects following the vaccine. But closely monitoring blood sugar levels for a few days after receiving the vaccine is important for managing blood sugar spikes.

People with diabetes are at greater risk for severe illness and death from COVID-19. The vaccines may cause some mild side effects, but they are highly effective at preventing COVID-19 complications.