People with type 2 diabetes need to manage their blood sugar levels in order to stay as healthy as possible. A care plan can outline the steps a person needs to take to reach their health goals.

A healthcare team works with a patient to design a tailored care plan covering their medications, blood sugar checks, insulin dosage, and other details that will allow them to manage their condition.

Globally, around 462 million people live with type 2 diabetes. Optimal condition management is key to improving a person’s quality of life.

This article discusses care plans for individuals with type 2 diabetes. It also provides information on insurance coverage for type 2 diabetes care plans.

A woman at home having a virtual consultation with a doctor about her type 2 diabetes care plan.Share on Pinterest
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A diabetes care plan, or diabetes medical management plan (DMMP), is a tool that helps people manage diabetes in day-to-day life.

DMMPs are helpful, because diabetes is a challenging, long-term condition, and it often requires a person to change their diet, lifestyle, and daily routines.

Having a personalized care plan outlining all parts of an individual’s diabetes care routine can make managing the condition more straightforward and less overwhelming.

Care plans also allow people to self-manage their condition, and guide them as to what to do in certain situations, such as if they develop hyperglycemia, which is when blood sugar levels are too high, or hypoglycemia, which is when sugar levels are too low.

An individual can provide a copy of the plan to caregivers, teachers, and others who may look after people with diabetes.

The goal of a type 2 diabetes care plan is to empower people so that they can manage their diabetes. This in turn can improve a person’s overall health and well-being.

To achieve this, the plan should take into consideration a person’s:

  • age
  • daily schedule
  • eating patterns
  • physical or mental ability
  • personality
  • social situation
  • cultural background

It should then set out exactly what an individual needs to do in order to care for themselves, in a way that is clear and easy to understand.

People with type 2 diabetes create their care plans with the help of healthcare professionals. Care plans can include input from:

Healthcare professionals ensure that individuals have the necessary knowledge and capabilities to complete the steps in their plan.

The care team may provide this information through diabetes self-management (DSM) education and support services, which are structured programs that teach people diabetes management skills.

If problems arise, an individual solves them with the help and support of their healthcare team, who provide information and resources whenever necessary. The healthcare team can also make adjustments to the plan over time if need be.

The care plan will cover all the necessary information a person needs to manage their daily needs and to prevent future complications. It will typically include:

Treatment goals

Treatment goals are at the center of a diabetes type 2 care plan, because they dictate what the care plan must include.

Doctors and individuals need to discuss treatment objectives and set realistic goals that fit with a person’s lifestyle.

Blood glucose monitoring

Care plans need to include a section on checking blood glucose. The section will list the type of glucose meter a person uses and the target blood glucose level before meals.

It will also cover when a person should perform blood glucose checks, and indicate the part of the body most suitable for the test, such as the finger, thigh, calf, or forearm.

If the care plan belongs to a young person living with type 2 diabetes, the section will also describe the things they can do themselves and the things a caregiver needs to do for them.

For those who use a continuous glucose monitor, the care plan lists the brand and model and the glucose level cutoffs for the alarms.

Treatment for high or low blood sugar

The care plan will outline treatment according to someone’s blood glucose levels. This includes cases of low or high blood sugar.

The plan should list the typical symptoms of both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, as well as the amount of insulin a person should administer to bring the sugar levels to a safe range.

Details of insulin therapy

The insulin therapy section of the plan will list:

  • the insulin delivery device a person uses, such as a syringe, an insulin pen, or an insulin pump
  • the insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio, which allows the person to calculate the correct insulin dose
  • a schedule for self-administering insulin

Diet and exercise

The plan may also include information on nutrition and cooking meals for someone with type 2 diabetes.

It may have guidance for counting carbohydrates, meal planning, and reaching or maintaining a moderate body weight. It may also include goals for physical activity.

Before attending an appointment with a doctor or nurse to discuss a care plan, a person may wish to have a set of questions ready to ask. They may want to write them down in case they forget any of them.

The person may need to bring with them some information, such as the type of medication they have used or dietary changes they have made so far to manage diabetes.

They may also need to answer questions about their schedule or daily routines so that the healthcare professional can start creating the plan.

If someone already has a care plan and feels it no longer suits their needs, they can bring the plan to the appointment and discuss potential modifications. For instance, if their lifestyle has changed or if they have trouble meeting blood sugar targets, a doctor will want to know.

These check-ins can be a good opportunity to assess the effectiveness of the plan. A doctor or diabetes nurse may check a person’s blood pressure or weight. Every 3–6 months, they will perform the A1C test to check the individual’s average blood sugar levels.

During a diabetes management appointment, it is also crucial for individuals to tell their doctor if they have noticed any new symptoms, especially those involving the feet and toenails, such as redness, sores, or swelling.

Some insurance providers may cover type 2 diabetes care plans within the context of DSM training.

For example, Medicare covers DSM training to prepare individuals to cope with and manage their condition. A care plan could also be part of this.

People with Medicare pay 20% of the Medicare-approved amount after the yearly deductible.

Many states require that insurers cover DSM training. This means that state-mandated insurers, such as Medicaid, are also likely to provide coverage.

However, individuals should check their policy documents to find details of coverage for their specific policy.

A type 2 diabetes care plan is an essential tool for understanding and managing the condition. An individual and a healthcare team work together to create a plan that is tailored to the person’s needs. The plan enables them to better manage their diabetes and therefore take care of their health.

A care plan for type 2 diabetes will typically include treatment goals, details about medications and blood glucose monitoring, and insulin therapy information. However, because care plans are tailored to an individual, the specific information may vary. For children, doctors include additional information for the caregivers assisting them.

People can often get financial help when covering the cost of DSM training, which may or may not include a care plan.