Ovarian cancer occurs when cells in the ovaries grow at an unrestricted and accelerated rate. There is currently no vaccine for ovarian cancer. Some people think the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is for ovarian cancer, but it is a vaccine against cervical cancer.
According to the American Cancer Society, approximately
Ovarian cancer can cause symptoms such as:
According to the
- middle age or older
- having close family members who have had ovarian cancer
- having a genetic mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2
- having had breast, uterine, or colorectal cancer
- having endometriosis
- have never given birth or have had trouble getting pregnant
Vaccines contain substances that help the body’s immune system build resistance against specific infections. Some vaccines can contain a killed or weakened form of a virus or bacteria, which promotes the production of immune cells (antibodies). Other vaccines contain compounds derived from pathogens, such as proteins.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved any vaccines for ovarian cancer. However, research into a vaccine is currently ongoing.
For example, researchers are investigating whether immunotherapy vaccine treatment will protect against ovarian cancer. Immunotherapy involves training the immune system to detect and protect against cancer cells.
This article will explore the progress in ovarian vaccine development and methods to reduce the risk of developing ovarian cancer.
This article will also clarify the confusion over the use of the HPV vaccine to prevent ovarian cancer.
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), HPV 16 and 18 cause
Vaccines are currently available to protect against HPV. Currently,
However, the efficacy of the HPV vaccine in protecting against certain cancer types may cause confusion.
The HPV vaccine has been shown to
However, the HPV vaccine does not protect against ovarian cancer.
Learn whether HPV and ovarian cancer have links here.
There is no vaccine for ovarian cancer. Doctors
However, researchers are currently determining the potential of vaccines for the prevention of ovarian cancer.
Specifically, researchers have been investigating the effectiveness of immunotherapy to prevent ovarian cancer.
Ovarian cancer can cause local immune suppression in its microenvironment. There is an association between the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in the microenvironment of ovarian cancer and a
One type of ovarian cancer vaccine option that researchers are exploring involves using dendritic immune cells. They present antigens to T cells which leads to their activation. Antigens are foreign substances that result in the activation of the immune system.
A 2021 review investigating the potential of ovarian cancer vaccines using dendritic cells found that they produced strong immunologic responses in participants. It notes that efficacy may improve when treatment involves combining dendritic cell vaccines with approved therapies for ovarian cancer, such as chemotherapy.
The review notes that a phase III trial investigating dendritic cell vaccines in ovarian cancer shows promise.
The review also notes that while dendritic cell vaccines can elongate tumor progression-free survival, the effect on overall survival is not significant. The review adds that the results warrant clinical trials with more participants to determine the benefits of dendritic cell vaccines.
Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) are
Studies show that NY-ESO-1 vaccination
Some researchers are investigating the potential of protein-based vaccines and recombinant viral vaccines.
Protein-based vaccine targets have included the protein p53, a tumor suppressor protein that is
While many of these potential vaccines are in clinical trial stages, the FDA is yet to approve a vaccine for ovarian cancer.
While there is currently no sure way to prevent ovarian cancer, some methods may
- having used birth control for 5 years or more
- having undergone tubal ligation
- having had both ovaries removed
- having undergone a hysterectomy
- having given birth
A 2021 study found that depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) may decrease the risk of developing ovarian cancer. It also notes that risk decreased further with increasing duration of depot use.
DMPA, also known as Depo-Provera, is a form of birth control. It inhibits the secretion of gonadotropins which inhibits ovulation. However, further research is needed and still underway, as DMPA can have serious side effects in some people.
A person should speak to their doctor before deciding to use birth control or another procedure to reduce their risk of ovarian cancer.
Ovarian cancer occurs when the cells in the ovaries grow at an accelerated rate. This can lead to symptoms such as vaginal bleeding, pain, and bloating.
There is currently no vaccine for ovarian cancer. A person should not confuse the HPV vaccine as a vaccine for ovarian cancer. The HPV vaccine reduces the risk of developing cancers of the vagina, vulva, anus, cervix, and throat but does not protect against ovarian cancer.
Clinical trials and studies are currently ongoing for ovarian cancer vaccines. Targets include dendritic cells, proteins, modified viruses, and cancer-testis antigens.
A person can reduce their risk of developing ovarian cancer by using birth control pills or having depot injections.
However, a person should consult their doctor before using any preventive measures.