A vaginal fistula is an opening that connects the vagina to another organ, such as the bladder, rectum, or bowel. They usually develop after tissue damage or trauma from childbirth, surgery, infections, cancer, or a chronic condition.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO),
Potential complications of this condition include urinary and fecal leakage, tissue damage, infections, and abdominal discomfort. In addition to health problems, some individuals may also experience social exclusion and depression due to the condition.
Treatment options will depend on the cause, size, and location of the fistula. In some cases, the condition may heal on its own. However, surgery is often very successful, and most individuals typically achieve a complete recovery.
In this article, we will discuss vaginal fistulas, including the different types, symptoms, causes, and more.
A note about sex and gender
Sex and gender exist on spectrums. This article will use the terms “male,” “female,” or both to refer to sex assigned at birth. Click here to learn more.
A vaginal fistula is an opening or hole that forms between the vaginal wall and another organ to which it is not normally connected. In females, fistulas involving the genitals and surrounding organs are common. They may occur due to difficult childbirths, pelvic surgery, infections, inflammation, or cancer treatment in the pelvis or genital area.
Depending on which organ the fistula connects to, a person may experience urinary or fecal incontinence. Having continuous leakage into the vaginal area may result in soreness and infections.
A 2020 study notes that a significant number of young females in Nigeria with no childbirth experience may have low levels of awareness of this condition. Although this may not be generalizable to the global population, it suggests there may be a need to increase public health awareness on vaginal fistulas and incorporate this into reproductive health education.
There are several types of vaginal fistulas, including:
A vesicovaginal fistula is a connection between the bladder and the vagina. It
A rectovaginal fistula describes a connection between the vagina and the rectum. This opening may result in the passage of stool and gas through the tract. Trauma during vaginal birth is the
A colovaginal fistula is an opening between the colon and the vagina. These fistulas are the
An enterovaginal fistula is an opening between the small intestine and the vagina.
A urethrovaginal fistula is a connection that develops between the vagina and the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body. It
A ureterovaginal fistula is a connection between the vagina and the ureter, a tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder. In people with this kind of fistula, urine bypasses the bladder and flows directly into the vagina.
- urinary incontinence or leakage
- fecal leakage or incontinence
- no urge to empty the bladder or bowels
- vaginal discharge, usually with a foul odor
- a sore, irritated, or infected vaginal area
- abdominal pain
- recurrent urinary tract infections, vaginal infections, and kidney infections
- painful intercourse
- nausea and vomiting
- unexplained weight loss
- rectal or vaginal bleeding
Vaginal fistulas develop after tissue damage. Common causes include:
- trauma from a vaginal birth, such as vaginal tears
- abdominal or pelvic surgeries, including hysterectomy and cesarean section
- radiation therapy for gynecologic cancer
- cancers in the pelvic area, including colon cancer, cervical cancer, and vaginal cancer
- chronic illnesses, such as Crohn’s disease and diverticulitis
- a foreign body in the vagina
To diagnose a vaginal fistula, a doctor will first review a person’s medical and surgical history. They may identify possible causes, such as recent pelvic surgery, childbirth, radiation therapy in the pelvic area, or a condition such as Crohn’s disease.
They will also assess a person’s symptoms and perform a thorough physical and pelvic exam. This will include a speculum exam and potentially a rectal exam if the doctor suspects a person has a rectovaginal fistula. They may order additional imaging tests to rule out other conditions and confirm the presence of a vaginal fistula. For example, diagnosis of a vesicovaginal fistula may involve:
- a cystoscopy exam to visualize the inside of the bladder
- a CT scan or voiding cystourethrogram to further check the area
- a dye test, where the doctor inserts dye into the bladder to help identify leakage
- a retrograde pyelogram, which helps visualize the kidneys, ureters, and bladder
- an MRI, CT, or a fistulogram, to produce images of the pelvic area and fistula
A person’s treatment will depend on the type and location of their fistula. Some small vaginal fistulas may heal on their own, while larger ones will require surgery. A doctor may suggest different surgical approaches depending on the fistula’s severity, complexity, and recurrence. Often, a surgeon will perform this through a minimally invasive laparoscopic procedure or open surgery.
For a vesicovaginal fistula, a doctor may perform the surgery via an incision in either the vagina or the abdomen. The surgical process can vary from person to person, depending on the history, method of injury, and extent of the repair. However, the procedure will typically involve most or all of the following steps:
- The person will receive a general anesthetic.
- Surgeons will use a cystoscope to look inside the urethra and bladder.
- They may also pass a plastic tube into the ureters to prevent damage during the procedure.
- The surgeons will make an incision inside the vagina or in the lower abdomen.
- They will separate the bladder from the vagina and repair the fistula using dissolvable stitches.
- Part of the fistula repair will involve removal of the fistulous tract.
- The surgeons may reinforce the area using fatty tissue from the labia or abdomen.
- They will place a catheter into the bladder through the urethra to allow the bladder to heal.
- A person may also receive a second catheter through the abdominal wall, known as a suprapubic catheter.
- At the end of the procedure, the surgeons will remove the plastic tubes from the ureters.
- The catheter or catheters will stay in place for 2–3 weeks during recovery, but a person can go home with them in place.
- A person will return to have a doctor check the bladder and remove the catheters.
Like all major surgeries, surgical repair of vaginal fistulas comes with risks. These may include:
In some rare cases, it can even be fatal.
Some surgeries fail to repair the fistula, while others do not heal properly or return. Other complications include:
Vaginal fistulas describe openings between the vagina and other organs, such as the rectum, bowel, and bladder, which are not normally present. These openings may occur due to pelvic surgery, childbirth, or radiation treatment for cancer.
Fistulas may cause uncomfortable symptoms such as continuous fecal and urine leaks, infections, and abdominal pain. While some small fistulas may heal on their own, many require surgery to separate the organs. The steps involved in these operations will depend on the fistula’s severity, location, and complexity.