A simple partial seizure results from changes in activity on one side of the brain. It does not affect a person’s consciousness or awareness. The person remains alert and awake during the seizure, and they may continue to talk.
If a partial seizure affects consciousness, it is a complex partial seizure. Doctors also use the term “focal impaired awareness seizure.” If changes in nerve activity affect more than one part of the brain, it is a generalized seizure.
Doctors may also refer to simple partial seizures as focal aware seizures or simple focal seizures.
If a person experiences repeated simple partial seizures, a doctor may diagnose epilepsy, which involves recurring seizures.
Partial seizures are the most common type of seizures in individuals with epilepsy, and
This article discusses what simple partial seizures are, how they compare with other seizures, what causes them, and what treatment options are available.
Some symptoms are common in people experiencing any type of partial focal seizure.
Some general symptoms of focal seizures that can occur alone or in combination include:
- smacking the lips or appearing to chew something
- picking at clothes
- repeatedly picking things up
- suddenly going floppy
- experiencing jerking movements of the limbs or body
- making side-to-side head movements
- making a sound resembling a loud cry or scream
- making repetitive movements, such as kicking or cycling
- experiencing changes in taste, smell, vision, or hearing
- having a feeling of deja vu
- experiencing sudden and intense emotions, such as joy or fear
- having a feeling resembling a wave going through the head, known as aura
- experiencing numbness and tingling
- feeling as if a body part is bigger or smaller than it really is
- seeing flashing lights
- hearing or seeing things that are not there
In some people, a simple partial seizure is a warning seizure that can indicate that another seizure is about to occur. It can be a warning of a generalized seizure, which affects the whole of the brain and causes a person to lose consciousness.
After a seizure, an individual may continue to feel confused or have difficulty thinking clearly for some time.
A seizure that lasts longer than
The brain communicates via electric signals. A seizure occurs when a person experiences a disturbance in their brain’s usual electric activity.
Simple partial seizures happen when people have an electrical change in a specific part of their brain that affects these signals.
Doctors do not know what causes many types of simple partial seizure disorders, but genetic factors
Other possible causes include:
- traumatic brain injury, if a scar tissue disturbs electrical signals in the brain
- changes following surgery
- a brain tumor
- developmental challenges
- the use of some medications
- exposure to toxins
- endocrine disorders, which affect hormone levels
- focal encephalitis
- problems with blood vessels
- trauma to the brain involving low levels of oxygen, which may happen during delivery
Some people experience a seizure after exposure to specific triggers, such as:
- lack of sleep
- an acute illness, such as an infection
- inappropriate use of medications and other substances
Some people living with diabetes
Some infections, structural damage to the brain, and other conditions can also cause EPC.
Sometimes, others may misinterpret a simple partial seizure as a person not paying attention. This can be challenging for children in school.
Having a correct diagnosis can help a person get the right treatment to manage seizures.
A doctor will likely:
- ask about symptoms
- ask about family and personal medical history
- carry out a physical examination
- order blood tests, scans, EEG, and other tests to identify possible causes and
If a person has repeated seizures, the doctor may diagnose epilepsy.
For recurring seizures, doctors
If a seizure happens because of an infection, high blood sugar, or a tumor, for example, the doctor will treat the underlying cause.
A range of medications known as antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) aims to help manage seizures. Each drug works differently, and sometimes, a doctor will prescribe a combination.
A doctor will prescribe an AED suitable for a person’s age and the severity of their symptoms.
Medications for seizures include:
- carbamazepine (Tegretol)
- lamotrigine (Lamictal)
- oxcarbazepine (Trileptal)
- phenytoin (Dilantin)
- valproate (Depakote)
- valproic acid (Depakene)
- topiramate (Topamax)
- vigabatrin (Sabril)
- clobazam (Onfi)
- clonazepam (Klonopin)
- carbamazepine levetiracetam (Keppra)
- gabapentin (Neurontin)
If a person takes AEDs, they should not stop taking them without first consulting a doctor. To prevent a seizure, the body needs to contain a certain amount of anticonvulsant medications. Stopping suddenly can trigger a seizure.
Below, we answer some common questions about simple partial seizures.
What are some alternative treatment options for recurring seizures?
Besides medication, other treatment options include:
A ketogenic diet may help manage seizures in some people whose epilepsy has not responded to medication.
Recent studies indicate there may be a link between epilepsy and the gut microbiome. The 2019 review authors propose using the ketogenic diet in such a way that it boosts the production of specific microorganisms. This, they say, could offer protection to the nervous system, potentially helping manage epilepsy.
However, they note that additional research is still necessary for this to become a treatment option. The diet may not be suitable for everyone. People should seek guidance from a doctor about whether adopting this diet is a good idea for them and for advice on how to implement it.
For people whose seizures do not respond to medication, surgery may be an option. This involves removing an area of the brain responsible for seizures, such as scar tissue, a tumor, or other elements.
However, depending on the site of the surgery, a person may experience other problems afterward, such as difficulties with verbal memory, difficulty naming things, and other neurological changes.
Other possible complications include:
Surgery is usually only suitable when other options have not helped. It may only be possible where the cause of the seizures is easily accessible.
Vagus nerve stimulator
Some people benefit from a device called a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS).
A VNS is a small unit that surgeons place under the skin in the chest and attach to the vagus nerve in the neck. That vagus nerve runs up to the brain, and the electrical signals released from the VNS change the electrical activity in the brain that causes seizures.
Most people undergo implantation as an outpatient procedure under local anesthetic. However, there is a risk of complications, such as a slowing of heart rhythm, changes in breathing patterns, and damage to the vocal cords.
Experts are currently investigating a newer device, the transcutaneous VNS (tVNS). It is a noninvasive technique that applies electrical currents through electrodes on the surface of the skin.
tVNS is cheaper, and there is a lower risk of complications. Studies into ways of using this device to treat epilepsy and other conditions are underway.
Besides VNS, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two neurostimulation devices to treat epilepsy: responsive neurostimulation and deep brain stimulation.
What are the different types of seizures?
Doctors divide seizures into groups depending on:
- which part of the brain the changes affect
- whether the seizures affect consciousness
- the changes that occur — for example, whether they affect movement
Experts subdivide simple focal seizures into
- Focal motor seizures: These happen when changes affect the part of the brain that controls movement.
- Focal sensory seizures: These occur when changes affect the part of the brain that controls the senses, such as sight, hearing, smell, and taste.
- Autonomic seizures: These result from changes in the area that controls the autonomic nervous system. This system is responsible for breathing, digestion, the cardiovascular system, and other automatic functions.
- Psychological seizures: These can affect people who have previously experienced psychological trauma.
If a person experiences any symptoms that may indicate a simple partial seizure, they should seek medical attention immediately. A doctor can evaluate and diagnose the cause of the issues.
A person who has partial seizures is
The risk of complications from a simple partial seizure is low. For instance, a person is less likely to accidentally breathe in food while conscious during a seizure.
However, there is a risk of falls and injury, and long-term nerve damage can occur if a person does not receive treatment.
Seizures can affect people with epilepsy and a range of other conditions. If a person has recurring seizures, a doctor may diagnose epilepsy.
There are different types of seizure. A partial seizure starts when changes occur in a specific part of the brain, while a generalized seizure involves the entire brain. In a simple partial seizure, the person will not lose consciousness.
The symptoms of a simple partial seizure vary depending on the subtype and other factors. While complications are less likely to occur during a seizure where a person is conscious, it is still important to seek treatment, as this can prevent long-term health issues.
If an underlying health condition is causing the seizure, a doctor can provide appropriate treatment.