Urologists and nephrologists both treat kidney problems. Urologists are surgical specialists who focus on anatomical or structural disorders of the kidneys and urinary tract. They treat problems such as kidney stones, kidney blockages and kidney cancer. Urologists are qualified to perform surgery and outpatient medical procedures to correct such conditions. Nephrologists are medical specialists who focus on disorders that affect the way the kidneys work such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Nephrologists prescribe nonsurgical medical treatments for these disorders.