Researchers have found that smoking may increase the risk of dying early in premenopausal women with breast cancer.
In a prospective study of 848 women with breast cancer who were followed for a median of 6.7 years, premenopausal women who smoked for more than 21.5 years had a 3.1-times higher risk of dying from any cause as well as a 3.4-times higher risk of dying from breast cancer.
These links were not apparent among post-menopausal women.
"Overall, this work is monumental in advising patients about how their smoking might affect their outcome," said Dr. Yuko Minami, co-author of the Cancer Science study. "Hopefully this paper will serve to reduce the number of breast cancer patients who continue to smoke."