Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection that is persistent can cause high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and that can lead to invasive cervical cancer. The New Mexico HPV Pap Registry has captured population-based estimates of both screening prevalence and CIN since the HPV vaccine was introduced in 2007.

A new study published online by JAMA Oncology by Cosette M. Wheeler, Ph.D., of the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, and coauthors examines the effect of HPV vaccination on CIN rates from 2007 to 2014 when taking into account changes in cervical cancer screening. In 2014, the average uptake of all three doses of HPV vaccine among females ages 13 to 17 in New Mexico was 40 percent.

The authors report reductions in population-based risk for all grades of CIN among females ages 15 to 19 and for CIN grade 2 among women 20 to 24 years old. Biopsy results were classified as three grades of CIN. "Based on vaccination coverage, reductions were greater than anticipated, supporting vaccine cross-protection, efficacy of less than three vaccine doses, and herd immunity contributions," according to the findings.

The study suggests potential for eventually revisiting guidelines for cervical cancer screening and maybe increasing the age to begin screening.

Article: Population-Based Incidence Rates of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Era, Vicki B. Benard, PhD; Philip E. Castle, PhD, MPH; Steven A. Jenison, MD; William C. Hunt, MA; Jane J. Kim, PhD; Jack Cuzick, PhD; Ji-Hyun Lee, PhD; Ruofei Du, PhD; Michael Robertson, BS; Scott Norville, MD; Cosette M. Wheeler, PhD; for the New Mexico HPV Pap Registry Steering Committee, JAMA Oncology, doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.3609, published online 29 September 2016.