How Does The Microsatellite Alterate In Metaplasia-Dysplasia-Adenocarcinoma Sequence?
This was published in the World Journal of Gastroenterology. Using an approach where tissue in slice was dissected under microscopic guidance, the technique ensures enrichment and purity of the tissues to be studied and guarantees the specificity of the molecular event encountered. Meamwhile, they diluted DNA of metaplasia, dysplasia, adenocarcinoma and normal esophageal squamous epithelium at the same patient, and attempted to proceed PCR, that is called dilution PCR. Dilution PCR, the more sensitive strategy for analyzing microsatellite changes was developed, reasoning that if a rare cell in a population harbored microsatellite alterations, the new microsatellite alleles would not be detectable amid the large background of normal alleles. The results indicate that the MSI and LOH may be early genetic events during esophageal carcinogenesis, that additional genetic alterations on D3S1616, D5S346, D2S123, D3S1300 and D18S58 loci probably play roles in progression. The results also indicate that microsatellite markers D3S1616, D5S346, D2S123, D3S1300 and D18S58 loci may be useful as predictive markers in the early detection of esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Interestingly, microsatellite alterations have been detected in all eight patients having the "sequence" with a representative DNA dilution. Similarly, microsatellite alterations have been detected both in metaplasia and dysplasia adjacent to adenocarcinoma at above 7 microsatellite loci. The more the dilution of DNA, the higher the rate of microsatellite alterations it usually has D3S1616, D5S346, D2S123, D3S1300, and D18S58 loci depending on development of the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. These results clearly reveal that there were extensive microsatellite alterations in D3S1616, D5S346, D2S123, D3S1300 and D18S58 loci in the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence of Barrett esophagus, even in the histopathologically normal esophageal squamous epithelium. The observations of shared molecular abnormalities in metaplasia, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma suggested a process of colonal expansion under the proposed histological pathway of tumor development, and these results may be partly interpreted by the idea that only the partial cells gained molecular alterations in the cell populations of similar circumstance.
Tumor development in Barrett esophagus is proposed to occur via a multi-step pathway, recognized histopathologically as a metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. Certain molecular abnormalities under the form of proto-oncogene alterations, LOH of putative tumor suppressor genes and mutations of tumor suppressor genes are thought to represent the genetic background of metaplastic and dysplastic changes. In recent years, frequent or infrequent microsatellite instability at multiple microsatellite loci corresponding to diverse tumor suppressor genes have been demonstrated in colorectal, small bowel and gastric adenocarcinoma . The results suggest that the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma is associated with microsatellite alterations, including MSI and LOH, and that these alterations occur in recognized precursor lesion.
Reference: Cai JC, Liu D, Liu KH, Zhang HP, Zhong S, Xia NS. Microsatellite alterations in phenotypically normal esophageal squamous epithelium & metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. World J Gastroenterol 2008;14(25): 4070-4076 http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/14/4070.asp
Correspondence to: Dr. Jian-Chun Cai, Department of Oncology Surgery, Xiamen Cancer Center, Affiliated Xiamen First Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Xiamen 361003, Fujian Province, China.
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World Journal of Gastroenterology (WJG), a leading international journal in gastroenterology and hepatology, has established a reputation for publishing first class research on esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, viral hepatitis, colorectal cancer, and H pylori infection. It provides a forum for both clinicians and scientists. WJG has been indexed and abstracted in Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, Science Citation Index Expanded (also known as SciSearch) and Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Index Medicus, MEDLINE and PubMed, Chemical Abstracts, EMBASE/Excerpta Medica, Abstracts Journals, Nature Clinical Practice Gastroenterology and Hepatology, CAB Abstracts and Global Health. ISI JCR 2003-2000 IF: 3.318, 2.532, 1.445 and 0.993. WJG is a weekly journal published by WJG Press. The publication dates are the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th of every month. The WJG is supported by The National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 30224801 and No. 30424812, and was founded with the title China National Journal of New Gastroenterology on October 1, 1995, and renamed WJG on January 25, 1998.
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Source: Lai-Fu Li
World Journal of Gastroenterology