Creating a free account will enable you to subscribe to our daily and weekly email newsletters, as well as customize your reading experience to show only the categories most relevant to you.
Signing up only take a few minutes, so why not give it a try and see what you've been missing out on.
[i] White WB, et al. Cardiovascular Outcomes In Patients Receiving Roflumilast for the Treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. CHEST 2013. doi: 10.1378/chest.12-2332. (Accessed February 2013)
[ii]de Lucas-Ramos P, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a cardiovascular risk factor. Results of a case-control study. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2012; 7: 679-86.
[iii]Sin, DD, et al. Mortality in COPD: role of comorbidities, Eur Respir J 2006; 28: 1245-57.
[iv]Mannino DM, et al. Prevalence and outcomes of diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease in COPD. Eur Respir J 2008; 32: 962-9.
[v]Ng T, et al. Co-morbid association of depression and COPD: a population-based study. Respiratory Medicine 2009; 103(6): 895-901.
[vi]Hill K, et al. Anxiety and depression in end-stage COPD. Eur Respir J 2008; 31: 667–677.
[vii]Rabe KF, et al. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: GOLD executive summary. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007; 176: 532-55.
[viii]Feary JR, et al. Prevalence of major comorbidities in subjects with COPD and incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke: a comprehensive analysis using data from primary care. Thorax 2010; 65: 956-962.
[ix]Eriksson B, et al. Association of heart diseases with COPD and restrictive lung function - Results from a population survey Berne. Respiratory Medicine 2013; 107: 98-106.
[x]Sidney S, et al. COPD and incident cardiovascular disease hospitalizations and mortality: Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program. CHEST 2005; 128: 2068-75.
[xi]Sin DD, et al. Why are patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases? The potential role of systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Circulation 2003; 107: 1514-19.
[xii]Lange P, et al. Prediction of the Clinical Course of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Using the New GOLD Classification - A Study of the General Population Peter. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012; 186: (10) 975–981.
[xiii]Tashkin DP, et al. A 4-year trial of tiotropium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 1543-54.
[xiv]Takabatake N, et al. The relationship between chronic hypoxemia, and activation of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha system in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 161: 1179-84.
[xv]Eid AA, et al. Inflammatory response and body composition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 164: 1414-18.
[xvi]Schols AM, et al. Evidence for a relation between metabolic derangements and increased levels of inflammatory mediators in a subgroup of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 1996; 51: 819-824.
[xvii]Fabbri LM & Rabe KF. From COPD to chronic systemic inflammatory syndrome? The Lancet 2007; 370, 9589: 797-799.
[xviii]Hatzelmann A & Schudt C. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory potential of the novel PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001; 297: 267-79.
[xix]Hatzelman A, et al. The preclinical pharmacology of roflumilast – A selective, oral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor in development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2010; 23: 235-256.
[xx]Grootendorst DC, et al. Reduction in sputum neutrophil and eosinophil numbers by the PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast in patients with COPD. Thorax 2007; 62: 1081-87.
[xxi]Calverley PM, et al. Roflumilast in symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: two randomised clinical trials. The Lancet 2009; 374: 685–694.
[xxii]Wouters EFM, et al. Effect of the Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor Roflumilast on Glucose Metabolism in Patients with Treatment-Naive, Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Clin Endocr & Metab 2012; 97: E1720-E1725.
[xxiii]Vollert S, et al. The glucose-lowering effects of the PDE4 inhibitors roflumilast and roflumilast-N-oxide in db/db mice. Diabetologia 2012; 55, 10: 2279-2788.
[xxiv]Wedzicha JA, et al. Efficacy Of Roflumilast In The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Frequent Exacerbator Phenotype. CHEST 2012. doi:10.1378/chest.12-1489.
[xxv]Fabbri LM, et al. Roflumilast in moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with long-acting bronchodilators: two randomised clinical trials. The Lancet 2009; 374: 695–703.
[xxvi]Rabe KF. Update on roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Br J Pharm 2011; 163: 53–67.
[xxvii]EU Summary of Product Characteristics, Daxas®, May 2011
[xxviii]Calverley P, et al. Does roflumilast decrease exacerbations in severe COPD patients not controlled by inhaled combination therapy? The REACT study protocol. Int J Chron Pulmon Dis 2012; 7: 375-382.
Source: Takeda Pharmaceuticals International GmbH
Article adapted by Medical News Today from original press release. Click 'references' tab above for source.
Visit our COPD category page for the latest news on this subject.
Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:
Takeda. "Reduced Rate Of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE) Observed In COPD Patients Treated With Daxas® (Roflumilast)." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 1 Mar. 2013. Web.
10 Dec. 2013. <http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/257013>
Takeda. (2013, March 1). "Reduced Rate Of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE) Observed In COPD Patients Treated With Daxas® (Roflumilast)." Medical News Today. Retrieved from
Please note: If no author information is provided, the source is cited instead.
If you write about specific medications, operations, or procedures please do not name healthcare professionals by name.
For any corrections of factual information, or to contact the our editorial team, please use our feedback form. Please send any medical news or health news press releases to:
Note: Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional. For more information, please read our terms and conditions.
This page was printed from: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/257013.php
Visit www.medicalnewstoday.com for medical news and health news headlines posted throughout the day, every day.
© 2004-2013 All rights reserved. MNT (logo) is the registered trade mark of MediLexicon International Limited.