Food poisoning is a major cause of gastroenteritis, resulting in a well-known set of unpleasant symptoms. Gastroenteritis generally resolves without medication, but in some cases, it can lead to complications.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cites that in spite of high standards in the U.S. food supply, about
This article discusses the common symptoms, causes, and treatment of food poisoning.
Gastroenteritis is a condition involving inflammation of the lining of the gut — in particular, of the stomach and intestines. It usually results from pathogens that infect a person and cause symptoms. These are usually viruses, bacteria, or parasites. When the source of such infection is food, it is called food poisoning.
Gastroenteritis may also be referred to as “gastric flu” or “stomach flu.” The most common symptoms are usually diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. It can also lead to dehydration, especially in vulnerable people such as the very young and very old.
The onset of gastroenteritis symptoms after eating food infected with a pathogen can be within a few hours, but the incubation period can also be much longer, depending on the pathogen involved.
Four well-known, classic symptoms are typical:
These symptoms can occur in any combination. They generally have a sudden (acute) onset, but this, and symptom severity, can vary.
Vomiting usually happens earlier on in the disease, diarrhea usually lasts for a few days, but can be longer depending on the organism that is causing the symptoms.
In addition to the classic symptoms above, gastroenteritis can also bring about:
- loss of appetite
- fever or high temperature and chills
Symptoms by type
The type of gastrointestinal symptoms is a clue to the type of infection. Viral infection generally produces diarrhea without blood or mucus and watery diarrhea is a prominent symptom.
Conversely, a person is more likely to have diarrhea with mucus and blood in bacterial diarrhea. Norovirus can cause acute onset of vomiting, especially in children.
Dehydration and malnutrition
One of the dangers of food poisoning and gastroenteritis — especially in very young, old, or otherwise vulnerable people — is the
In the case of parasitic gastroenteritis, another danger is malnutrition. The parasites reach the intestines and feed off the nutrients a person absorbs from their food. This results in a person developing a chronic lack of nutrients.
Infections can pass from person to person when people spread a pathogen by touching food, especially in cases where hand hygiene is more challenging. There are generally viruses, bacteria, or parasites.
Viral gastroenteritis is also called stomach flu.
Viruses that most commonly cause viral gastroenteritis are:
- Rotavirus. More common in children and the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in children
- Norovirus. More common in adults
Less common viral causes are astrovirus, usually affecting children and the elderly, and adenoviruses. Cytomegalovirus can cause gastroenteritis, especially in people with compromised immunity.
The microorganisms that most commonly cause bacterial gastroenteritis are:
A study from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)’s Interagency Food Safety Analytics Collaboration found that between 2015–2019,
Parasites are organisms that need to live inside and feed off other organisms in order to survive.
Though gastroenteritis caused by parasites is more common in low and middle-income regions, parasitic infections do occur globally. About
The two types of parasites that
Though different pathogens will affect the body in different ways, the FDA and CDC summarize how common pathogens might cause gastroenteritis as follows:
|Pathogen||Time before symptoms start||Time symptoms last||Common food sources|
|Bacillus cereus||24–48 hours||meat, stew, gravy, vanilla sauce|
|Campylobacter jejuni||2–5 days||2–10 days||uncooked poultry, unpasteurized milk, water containing pathogens|
|E. coli||1–3 days||3–7 days||uncooked meat (usually beef), raw leafy green vegetables like lettuce, unpasteurized milk, water containing pathogens|
|Rotavirus||3–8 days||any food containing pathogens from fecal matter|
|Norovirus||12–48 hours||1–3 days||raw oysters, fruit, and vegetables |
|Cryptosporidium||1–2 weeks||any food or water containing pathogens|
|Giardia||1–3 weeks||any food or water containing pathogens|
Gastroenteritis and food poisoning usually resolve without any medical intervention. Treatment is focused on reducing the symptoms and preventing complications, especially dehydration.
The main treatment and prevention strategy for food poisoning is to rest and replace lost fluids and electrolytes by:
- drinking plenty of liquids (preferably with oral rehydration salts to replace lost electrolytes — see below)
- ensuring fluid intake even if vomiting persists, by sipping small amounts of water or allowing ice cubes to melt in the mouth
- gradually starting to eat again
What should a person eat?
There are no specific restrictions on food, but blander foods might be easier to digest. These can include:
A person may want to avoid fatty, sugary, or spicy foods, as well as dairy products, caffeine, and alcohol, as these may worsen symptoms.
How to prevent dehydration?
To avoid the dangerous and potentially fatal effects of dehydration from diarrhea, a person should drink oral rehydration salts (ORS).
Research shows that using ORS has prevented more than
Dehydration has been a more significant risk in low or middle-income countries. In higher-income countries, while the threat of death is smaller, rehydration is nonetheless important.
A person can replace salt, glucose, and minerals lost through dehydration through sachets of oral rehydration salts available from pharmacies and online. A person can dissolve the salts in drinking water and this does not require a doctor’s prescription.
It is important to get the right concentration, as too much sugar can make diarrhea worse, while too much salt can be extremely harmful, especially for children. A more diluted solution (for instance using more than 1 liter of water), is preferable to a more concentrated solution.
Store-bought products like Pedialyte and Gatorade also help restore electrolytes and increase hydration.
Drug treatments for gastroenteritis
Drugs are available to
- antidiarrheal medication such as loperamide (branded versions include Imodium, and Imotil, among others) and bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol)
- antiemetic (anti-vomiting) medication such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine) and metoclopramide (Reglan and Metozolv)
- antiparasitic medications such as Metronidazole (Flagyl) or Ivermectin (Stromectol). (The exact medication
will dependon the type of parasite.)
Antidiarrheals are available over-the-counter, while antiemetics are available via a prescription.
A person should speak with a doctor before taking anti-diarrhea medication as some infections may get worse with anti-diarrhea medicines.
Probiotics and gastroenteritis
Probiotics (live “good” bacteria and yeasts) may also be helpful in treating gastroenteritis, according to some newer research. One study found that the use of probiotics in children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis shortened the duration of diarrhea by a mean of
Specifically, there is some evidence to support the use of the
- Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG
- Saccharomyces boulardii
This is a new area of study, so there may be more research about using probiotics to treat gastroenteritis in the future.
People with compromised immunity are especially at risk of getting food poisoning and getting severe symptoms, as their bodies may not be able to fight off the infection as well.
Other people at risk include people over the age of 65, pregnant people, children, and infants.
In addition, a person who eats the following foods may be more at risk:
- beef, chicken
- fish (especially raw like sushi) and seafood like shellfish
- fruit and vegetables
- raw flour
Standard advice to avoid food poisoning
- Cook. Ensure adequate heating time at the proper temperature to kill any bacteria that could cause gastroenteritis. It is helpful to use a thermometer to test cooked meat and to ensure egg yolks are firm.
- Separate. Separate foods to avoid cross-contamination and especially raw meat.
- Chill. Chilled storage slows the growth of harmful bacteria.
- Clean. Keep utensils and worktops clean and wash hands frequently, especially before eating or touching the mouth and after handling raw meat or eggs.
Food poisoning is usually easy to diagnose from the symptoms alone with little need for confirmation from a doctor. The symptoms a patient reports are usually sufficient to inform a diagnosis.
In some cases, stool testing is necessary. For example, if diarrhea is accompanied by blood or is watery for more than a few days, doctors may want a stool sample to test for parasites or bacteria.
During an outbreak of rotavirus, for example, the doctor may request other specific tests.
The following are answers to common questions about gastroenteritis.
What are other causes of gastroenteritis?
In rarer cases, a few other causes can lead to gastroenteritis. These
Is it food poisoning or stomach flu?
Food poisoning refers to gastroenteritis caused by eating food containing pathogens. This can have a viral cause, such as norovirus for example, which is when it is referred to as “stomach flu.” However, this is not what people
Is gastroenteritis contagious?
Gastroenteritis is contagious. The degree of contagion can depend on the type of pathogen and the amount a person has been exposed to. It may also depend on any predisposing factors, such as whether the person is immunocompromised, for example.
A person who is ill other people while they have symptoms and for several weeks after getting better. A person can pass the infection to someone else by touching water, food, or other objects infected with pathogens. They can also do it by coming in physical contact with another person or by breathing out droplets containing the pathogen.