Wrinkles are creases, folds, or ridges in the skin. They naturally appear as people get older.
The first wrinkles tend to appear on a person’s face in areas where the skin naturally folds during facial expressions. They develop due to the skin becoming thinner and less elastic over time.
Wrinkles also tend to appear on parts of the body that receive most sun exposure, such as the face and neck, back of the hands, and arms.
Wrinkles are a natural part of growing older, and they affect everyone. However, many people dislike the appearance of wrinkles, and, as a result, the anti-aging market in the United States is worth over 50 billion dollars per year.
This article looks at why people get wrinkles, what causes them, and what increases their appearance. It also looks at some methods that people use to reduce wrinkles, some of which are more effective than others.
Wrinkles are a natural part of the aging process. As people get older, their skin becomes thinner, drier, and less elastic, which means it is less able to protect itself from damage. This leads to wrinkles, creases, and lines on the skin.
Facial expressions, such as smiling, frowning, or squinting, lead to the development of fine lines and wrinkles at a young age. These lines deepen as the person gets older.
When a person is young, their skin springs back. As they get older, the skin loses its flexibility, and it becomes more difficult for the skin to spring back, resulting in permanent grooves.
Wrinkles affect people of different skin tones differently due to structural and functional differences in the skin. Research indicates that the compact dermis is thicker in the skin of Black and Asian people, which likely protects against facial wrinkles.
Many factors affect the development of wrinkles, including:
- sun exposure
- some medications
- environmental and genetic factors
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from sunbathing, tanning booths, and outdoor sports increases the development of wrinkles.
UV light breaks down the collagen and elastin fibers in the skin. These fibers form the connective tissue that supports the skin. As this layer breaks down, the skin becomes weaker and less flexible. The skin starts to droop, and wrinkles appear.
Darker skin contains more melanin and protects from many harmful effects of UV radiation.
People who work in sunlight have a higher chance of early wrinkles. Wearing clothes that cover the skin, such as hats or long sleeves, may delay the development of wrinkles.
Regular smoking accelerates the aging process of skin because it reduces the blood supply to the skin. Alcohol dehydrates the skin, and dry skin is more likely to develop wrinkles.
There are many treatments available to help reduce fine lines on the skin. For deeper creases, a person may require more aggressive techniques, such as plastic surgery or injections of fillers.
However, using retinoids can cause the skin to burn in sunlight, so it’s essential to protect the skin while using the cream. Possible adverse effects include:
- a burning sensation
- discolored areas
The active ingredients in wrinkle creams vary in type and concentration. Concentrations in an over-the-counter (OTC) wrinkle creams will be significantly lower than a prescription one. The concentration will affect how well they work.
People may notice slight-to-modest results from the following medications:
- alpha hydroxy acids
- coenzyme Q10
- copper peptides
Dermabrasion is a surgical procedure that involves the controlled wearing away, or abrasion, of the upper layers of skin with a rapidly rotating device.
This procedure may cause scabbing, swelling, and changes in skin color. These symptoms generally fade after 2 weeks, but some signs may remain for several months.
A person will not achieve their desired results immediately and may not see any improvements for several months.
Microdermabrasion is a less invasive procedure. It involves spraying microcrystals of aluminum oxide across the surface of the skin. Some practitioners use a handheld device with fine diamond crystals and a powerful vacuum to remove the particles as they brush it over the skin.
This type of treatment aims to give a fresher and smoother appearance to the skin and reduce the appearance of lines and wrinkles, enlarged pores, coarse skin, and sun damage.
The results are only temporary, and people may require repeated treatments.
Non-ablative lasers, radiofrequency (RF) devices, and pulsed light sources do not damage the epidermis.
Laser and light source therapy treatments destroy the outer layer of the skin to decrease wrinkles.
Radiofrequency (RF) treatments heat the underlying dermis and stimulate the development of new collagen fibers. This tightens skin and decreases wrinkles.
It might take several months before a person notices a decrease in wrinkles after RF treatment. In a 2013 study, over 90% of participants who underwent RF were satisfied with the results at 1 month and 6 months after treatment. RF does not cause a wound. However, the researchers called for further investigations into safety and effectiveness.
When the wound heals from laser or light surgery, the new skin is smoother and tighter. Ablative laser resurfacing can take several months to heal,
Newer therapies using laser technology may heal more quickly.
A person may need several treatments before their skin feels firmer and appears refreshed, but recovery times are faster.
Botulinum toxin type A, or Botox, blocks the chemical signals that cause muscles to contract. Doctors use it to treat some medical conditions.
A cosmetic professional will use it to reduce wrinkles by injecting small doses of Botox into targeted muscles. If the muscles can no longer tighten, the skin flattens, giving a less wrinkled and smoother appearance.
Botox can decrease the lines on the forehead, the frown lines between the eyes, and “crow’s feet” around the corners of the eyes.
According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, a person will see results after a few days to a week. The changes usually last for 3–4 months, so many people get repeat injections.
A chemical peel involves applying a chemical solution to the desired areas, causing the dead skin to shed and eventually peel off. The regenerated skin tends to be smoother than the old skin.
People can buy some types of chemical peels without a medical license. However, it’s best to consult a medical healthcare professional for the treatment.
A facelift, or a rhytidectomy, is a type of cosmetic surgery that aims to make people look more youthful. It usually involves removing some facial skin and fat, with or without tightening the underlying tissues.
A study in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery suggests that some elements of a facelift should last for about 5 and a half years, but it may lose some effect around the neck.
Healing times may be lengthy, and the person will experience bruising and swelling for a few weeks after surgery.
Soft tissue fillers include collagen, hyaluronic acid, or fat. A cosmetic professional will inject fillers into deeper face wrinkles, plumping and smoothing them out to give the skin more volume.
People may sometimes experience swelling and bruising in the affected areas for a short period. As with Botox treatment, these treatments are temporary, and people may require regular injections.
The results depend on several factors, including where the wrinkles are and their depth.
Everybody gets wrinkles and lines that become more prominent over time. Some ways to prevent or reduce their development include:
- Using sun protection. Avoiding UV exposure reduces skin damage. Dermatologists recommend wearing a hat and clothing to protect the skin and using a sunscreen of SPF 30 or higher every day.
- Moisturizing regularly. Moisturizing prevents dryness, which reduces the chance of wrinkles forming.
- Quitting smoking. Smoking greatly speeds up skin aging and causes skin wrinkles.
- Drinking less alcohol. Alcohol dehydrates the skin, which causes damage over time.
- Eating a healthful, balanced diet. Eating plenty of fruit and vegetables can prevent skin damage, whereas sugar and refined carbs can speed up skin aging.
- Washing your face twice a day. Use a gentle cleanser. Rubbing the skin can cause irritation and speed up skin aging.
- Washing your face after heavy sweating. Sweat can irritate the skin, causing damage over time. This is especially true when wearing a hat or helmet.
Wrinkles are a normal part of the aging process. Fine lines appear first, and then the creases deepen when the skin begins to lose its elasticity.
People can use various treatments to reduce wrinkles. Lifestyle changes, such as moisturizing, wearing sun protection, eating a healthful diet, avoiding smoking, and drinking less alcohol, may help prevent or delay the appearance of wrinkles.