Cholesterol is a fat-like substance that naturally occurs in the blood and that humans need. The body produces as much cholesterol as is necessary, but several factors can alter this level.
About 38% of people in the United States have total blood cholesterol levels above this figure. A person’s sex, age, body weight, and lifestyle habits can all affect their cholesterol levels.
The level of cholesterol in the body can affect heart health. Having optimum cholesterol levels also helps the body produce and maintain optimal amounts of vitamin D and hormones and promotes digestion.
In this article, we explain what cholesterol is, how it affects the body, and what the optimum levels are.
A note about sex and gender
Sex and gender exist on spectrums. This article will use the terms “male,” “female,” or both to refer to sex assigned at birth. Click here to learn more.
There are three different types of cholesterol in the body:
All three types of cholesterol contain triglycerides, although about half of VLDL is triglycerides.
These cholesterol blockages can also detach from artery walls and cause blood clots.
Optimum levels of HDL cholesterol can lower a person’s risk of heart disease and stroke.
The liver creates VLDL to carry triglycerides throughout the body. Triglycerides are another
Doctors will typically measure the total level of cholesterol in a person’s blood.
Total cholesterol levels are as follows:
- Optimal: 125–200 mg/dl
- Borderline high: 200–239 mg/dl
- High: 240 mg/dl or more
Doctors calculate total cholesterol levels by summing the HDL level, the LDL level, and
Blood cholesterol tests typically require people to fast for up to 12 hours before the doctor can take a blood sample.
Doctors will measure the level of each type of cholesterol in a person’s blood and their overall level.
The optimal LDL cholesterol level is less than 100 mg/dl. Levels between 100 and 129 mg/dl are moderate. Borderline high results range from 130 to 159 mg/dl. Levels between 160 and 189 mg/dl are high, and a result of 190 mg/dl is very high.
The optimal HDL cholesterol level is 60 mg/dl or more. Levels lower than 40 mg/dl are too low.
The optimal VLDL level is less than 30 mg/dl.
A person’s total cholesterol levels change with age. People’s sex may also play a role.
A 2019 study involving Korean adults found that males tend to have higher total cholesterol levels between
However, in general, total cholesterol levels peaked over the age of 50 years in both sexes.
In males, average total cholesterol levels increased from 159.0 mg/dl at 18–19 years of age to 201.4 mg/dl at the age of 50–51 years.
By contrast, the average levels among females rose from 170.5 mg/dl at 20–21 years of age to a high of 212.4 mg/dl at the age of 56–57 years.
Other factors that influence cholesterol levels
- Diet: Foods high in saturated fat, trans fat, and carbohydrates increase cholesterol levels. Limiting these types of foods will help regulate and decrease blood cholesterol.
- Weight: Scientists associate many risks with having overweight or obesity, such as increased triglyceride levels. Reaching or maintaining a moderate body weight helps all factors of health, including heart disease.
- Exercise: Engaging in physical activity for at least 30 minutes per day increases a person’s heart rate, helps maintain a moderate body weight, and lowers LDL cholesterol levels while increasing the levels of HDL cholesterol.
- Heredity: High cholesterol can run in families.
The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends that both males and females over the age of 20 years have their cholesterol checked every
High cholesterol itself does not produce any symptoms. As a result, it is important for people to get regular checkups. Doctors can use this information to discover and treat associated conditions early.
If a blood analysis finds high cholesterol levels, a doctor can help make a plan to reduce the risks. This plan may include making lifestyle changes, such as getting exercise, modifying one’s diet, taking prescription medication, and following nutrition advice.
Losing weight and exercising regularly, avoiding sugary foods and alcohol, and taking cholesterol-lowering medication may help.
Doctors typically define healthy total cholesterol levels as less than
High cholesterol levels can increase the risk of developing several severe conditions, such as heart disease, stroke, and coronary disease. A person’s risk further increases with obesity and poor diet.
Heart disease is the