Limited contact with gasoline is usually harmless. However, gasoline and its vapors are toxic, and having extended exposure to them can seriously damage a person’s health.

Gasoline is a human-made substance that people use primarily to fuel vehicles and other machines that use an engine.

Having exposure to gasoline or gasoline vapors in large amounts or over an extended period of time can cause serious health complications. Ingesting even a small quantity of gasoline can be fatal.

If someone in the United States suspects gasoline exposure or poisoning, they should immediately call Poison Control on 800-222-1222, and an expert will provide care instructions. If symptoms are severe, they should also call 911 or visit the nearest hospital.

This article looks at how gasoline can affect a person’s health, including the symptoms and causes of gasoline poisoning.

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Gasoline is a toxic and extremely flammable liquid. At room temperature, it is usually colorless, pale brown, or pale pink.

Gasoline comprises compounds called hydrocarbons, which include alkanes, benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

When even small quantities of hydrocarbons enter the bloodstream, it can reduce the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) and cause organ damage.

Gasoline is not just toxic when people ingest it. A person can also sustain damage to the skin, eyes, and lungs when they come into contact with gasoline liquid or the fumes or vapors of gasoline.

Burning gasoline releases several harmful chemicals, one of which is carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless gas that can be deadly when a person inhales it in high concentrations or for a prolonged period of time.

For this reason, running a vehicle or using gas-fueled machines or tools in an enclosed area is never safe.

Gasoline exposure can reduce the functioning of the CNS and damage organs. The symptoms of gasoline poisoning depend on a few factors, such as:

  • whether the person has touched, swallowed, or inhaled gasoline
  • how much gasoline they had exposure to
  • the length of exposure
  • their age, body weight, and sex
  • whether or not they also had exposure to other chemicals

Symptoms of gasoline inhalation

Inhaling gasoline vapors can irritate the sensitive lung tissues, and a number of the chemicals can enter the bloodstream.

Once in the bloodstream, some of these chemicals can make it difficult for the body to move oxygen around the body tissues, causing healthy tissue to die.

Some symptoms that commonly occur following gasoline vapor exposure include:

Symptoms of skin exposure to gasoline

Getting a small amount of gasoline on the skin for a short period of time is usually harmless. The skin does not readily absorb the chemicals in gasoline.

However, if gasoline remains on the skin or clothing for a few hours, it can enter the skin.

Some symptoms of skin and eye exposure to gasoline include:

  • mild skin irritation
  • skin inflammation
  • cracking, blistering, or peeling skin
  • pus-like discharge
  • first and second degree burns
  • temporary loss of vision, eye pain, and eye discharge

Symptoms of gasoline ingestion

The gastrointestinal tract does not absorb gasoline as easily as the lungs do, but ingesting gasoline can still be fatal.

In adults, 20–50 grams (g) of gasoline, which is fewer than 2 ounces (oz), can cause severe intoxication, and around 350 g (12 oz) can kill a person who weighs 70 kilograms. In children, ingesting 10–15 g (up to half an oz) of gasoline can be fatal.

Some symptoms of ingesting gasoline include:

  • vomiting
  • heartburn
  • drowsiness
  • vertigo
  • slurred speech
  • facial flushing
  • staggering
  • weakness
  • blurry vision
  • confusion
  • convulsions
  • loss of consciousness
  • lung and internal organ hemorrhaging
  • heart failure

When someone swallows gasoline, they may also experience lung damage if the gasoline in their stomach travels to the lung while they are vomiting.

Most people only come into contact with gasoline and gasoline vapors at the gas station or while using their lawnmower.

People who work with machinery may have a higher risk of health problems because they have daily exposure to gasoline, gasoline vapors, or other fuels, such as diesel and kerosene.

Some examples of these people include:

  • gas station workers
  • garage workers and mechanics
  • gasoline pipeline workers
  • marine loading dock workers and bulk loading terminal workers
  • people who service and remove underground gas storage tanks
  • gasoline truck drivers
  • workers who identify and clean up gas spills and leaks
  • gas refinery workers
  • farmers
  • lawn care providers
  • toll booth workers
  • miners and railroad workers
  • people who operate heavy machinery

Over time, gas pipelines and tanks may leak small amounts of gasoline into the groundwater.

Normal purification processes typically remove these trace levels of gasoline, but some people may occasionally come into contact with contaminated water. This includes those who use water from wells to drink, bathe, or both.

Children are more likely to experience serious side effects from gasoline because they:

  • absorb more gasoline vapors due to a greater surface area in the lungs
  • are generally shorter than adults, and vapor concentrations are higher closer to the ground
  • are more likely to ingest toxins accidentally
  • do not recognize the signs or smells of exposure as well as an adult might

If very severe, exposure to gasoline or gasoline vapors can cause permanent organ damage, coma, or death.

In animal studies, scientists have linked continuous exposure to gasoline vapors for 2 years to liver and kidney cancer. However, not enough scientific evidence is currently available to prove that gasoline vapor exposure causes these cancers in humans.

Chronic inhalation of gasoline fumes can have a wide range of consequences, including sudden death.

Some symptoms of chronic gasoline exposure include:

  • irritability
  • impaired gait when walking
  • memory loss
  • nausea
  • tremors
  • involuntary eye movements
  • seizures
  • muscle spasms
  • hallucinations
  • altered vision
  • confusion
  • drowsiness
  • insomnia
  • poor appetite

Over time, chronic gasoline exposure can cause more severe and sometimes permanent health problems. These may include:

  • kidney disease
  • nerve disorders
  • brain disease
  • muscular degeneration
  • behavioral and intellectual changes

Prolonged skin contact with gasoline can affect the skin’s natural protective layers. This damage can result in skin peeling and cracking, which, in severe cases, can cause scarring.

According to the American Cancer Society, chronic or severe exposure to fuel products made from gasoline, such as diesel and benzenes, can also cause severe health complications, which may include certain types of cancer.

If a person suspects gasoline poisoning, regardless of the exposure route, they should immediately call Poison Control on 800-222-1222. If symptoms are severe, they should also call 911.

There is no antidote for gasoline exposure or poisoning. Once someone is in the hospital, doctors can provide medications and supportive therapy to try to ensure that a person’s heart and lungs continue to function correctly and that they are hydrated.

People should never attempt to treat themselves or others at home.

There are, however, a few general steps that people can follow to help reduce the risk of developing more serious symptoms. These include the following:

  • Move to a well-ventilated area and call Poison Control if strong gasoline vapors are present.
  • Remove all clothing that has come into contact with gasoline and take a shower. Rinse the body thoroughly with powerful running water and soap for at least 15 minutes.
  • If the skin is flushed, blistering, or irritated, call Poison Control. Seek medical attention immediately if these symptoms are severe.
  • If gasoline comes into contact with the eye, rinse it with running water for at least 15–20 minutes while blinking frequently. Call Poison Control after rinsing the eye thoroughly.
  • If someone has swallowed gasoline, they should call Poison Control. They should also drink a small amount of water if they can swallow, are not having convulsions, and are responsive. Never encourage someone to vomit or try to get water down an unresponsive person’s throat.

With proper medical attention, minor CNS symptoms go away after the body has cleared the toxins, though it can take a few weeks for the kidneys to heal.

If a person washes it off quickly, gasoline usually does not cause significant skin complications.

However, severe gasoline exposure of any kind can be fatal. The long-term consequences of this exposure can be significant. They include:

  • lung damage
  • kidney failure
  • loss of vision
  • severe scarring
  • intestinal damage
  • esophagus, mouth, and throat damage

People can usually prevent exposure to gasoline vapors by avoiding places where they might encounter gasoline fumes.

People with jobs that expose them to gasoline regularly should always follow proper precautions, such as wearing protective clothing or masks.

Those who work around gasoline should practice good safety habits on-site and when handling or storing gasoline, such as:

  • not standing close to exhaust pipes
  • wearing gloves and protective clothing or masks when handling gasoline for extended periods of time
  • washing the skin thoroughly as soon as any gasoline comes into contact with it
  • keeping gasoline and gasoline products stored in a safe place that children cannot access
  • not purposefully sniffing or huffing gasoline
  • booking regular gasoline pipe checks and services
  • not using gasoline-powered machines, such as cars or power tools, in an enclosed area without proper ventilation
  • practicing gasoline safety habits when handling or storing other products that contain hydrocarbons, such as motor oil, kerosene, lighter fluid, and diesel

Many people might not know if they have gasoline pipelines running through their property. People can access a national pipeline mapping system through the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration website.

People who work around gasoline should talk with a doctor about ways to reduce their risk of long-term health consequences. They should also tell a doctor about any symptoms of gasoline overexposure as soon as they develop.

Limited gasoline exposure should not cause significant health problems. However, gasoline and gasoline vapors are toxic, and chronic exposure to them can be deadly.

No home remedies or medical treatments are available for gasoline poisoning, only supportive therapies.

If someone suspects gasoline poisoning, they should always call Poison Control, which people in the U.S. can reach by calling 800-222-1222.

Call for help immediately if someone is unconscious or experiencing a seizure related to gasoline exposure.