Research suggests that a newly developed brain training app may improve our concentration and other cognitive skills.
Many, if not most, of us spend our days rapidly switching between competing tasks. We call this "multitasking," and take pride in how efficient we are in dealing with multiple problems at the same time.
However, multitasking requires that we quickly redirect our focus from one activity to another and then back again, which, in time, can have a detrimental effect on our ability to concentrate.
"We've all experienced coming home from work feeling that we've been busy all day but unsure what we actually did," says Prof. Barbara Sahakian from the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Cambridge.
"Most of us spend our time answering emails, looking at text messages, searching social media, trying to multitask. But, instead of getting a lot done, we sometimes struggle to complete even a single task and fail to achieve our goal for the day," she adds, noting that we may even find it difficult to stay focused on pleasant, relaxing activities, such as watching TV.
Yet, she continues, "For complex tasks, we need to get in the 'flow' and stay focused." So, how can we re-teach our minds to stay focused?
Prof. Sahakian and colleagues believe that they may have found an effective and uncomplicated solution to this problem.
The research team has developed a brain training app called "Decoder," which can help users improve their concentration, memory, and numerical skills.
The scientists have recently conducted a study to test the effectiveness of their new app, and they now report their results in the journal Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience.
An app that improves concentration
In the study, Prof. Sahakian and team worked with a cohort of 75 young and healthy adult participants. The trial spanned 4 weeks, and all the participants took a special test measuring their concentration skills at both the beginning and the end of the study.
As part of the trial, the researchers divided the participants into three groups. They asked one group to play the new Decoder training game, while the second group had to play Bingo, and the third group received no game to play.
Those in the first two groups played their respective games during eight 1-hour sessions over the 4 weeks, and they did so under the researchers' supervision.
At the end of the trial period, the researchers found that the participants who had played Decoder demonstrated better attention skills than both the participants who had played Bingo and those who had played no game at all.
The researchers state that these improvements were "significant" and comparable to the effects of medication that doctors prescribe for the treatment of attention-impairing conditions, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
App could help with ADHD
In the next step of the trial, Prof. Sahakian and team wanted to test whether Decoder could boost concentration without negatively affecting a person's ability to shift their attention effectively from one task to another.
To do so, they asked participants who had used Decoder and Bingo to take the Trail Making Test (TMT), which assesses individuals' attention-shifting capacity. The researchers found that Decoder players performed better on the TMT than Bingo players.
Finally, participants who played Decoder reported higher rates of enjoyment while participating in this activity, as well as stronger motivation and better alertness throughout all their sessions.
"Many people tell me that they have trouble focusing their attention. Decoder should help them improve their ability to do this," says Prof. Sahakian.
"In addition to healthy people, we hope that the game will be beneficial for patients who have impairments in attention, including those with ADHD or traumatic brain injury. We plan to start a study with traumatic brain injury patients this year," the researcher also notes.
An 'evidence-based game'
Cambridge Enterprise recently licensed the new game to app developer Peak, who specialize in the release of brain training apps. Peak have adapted Decoder for the iPad platform, and the game is now available from the App Store as part of the Peak Brain Training package.
George Savulich, another of the current study's authors, notes that, unlike other apps that claim to train the brain but do not necessarily deliver on their promise, he and his colleagues based the development of Decoder on hard scientific evidence.
"Many brain training apps on the market are not supported by rigorous scientific evidence. Our evidence-based game is developed interactively [...]. The level of difficulty is matched to the individual player, and participants enjoy the challenge of the cognitive training."
"Peak's version of Decoder is even more challenging than our original test game, so it will allow players to continue to gain even larger benefits in performance over time," Prof. Sahakian adds.
"By licensing our game, we hope it can reach a wide audience who are able to benefit by improving their attention," she says.