Genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) is a type of tuberculosis that affects the urinary system, genital organs, or both. It can lead to symptoms such as pain, blood in urine, or increased urinary frequency.
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GUTB usually results from an Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the lungs that spreads to the genitourinary tract via the blood.
Treatment usually involves
Keep reading to learn more about GUTB, including the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and outlook.
GUTB is when tuberculosis affects the genitals or urinary tract.
While tuberculosis can affect any organ, it most often involves the lungs, known as pulmonary tuberculosis. However, about
Find out more about the genitourinary tract, including:
The microbe that
- Mycobacterium bovis
- Mycobacterium pinnipedii
- Mycobacterium africanum
- Mycobacterium caprae
- Mycobacterium microti
In rare cases, the tuberculosis vaccine bacillus Calmette-Guérin can lead to GUTB.
The most frequent cause involves the spread of pulmonary tuberculosis through the blood to the urogenital tract during the initial infection. The infection can remain inactive — or latent — but becomes active if a person develops immune system suppression.
Less commonly, a person can acquire the infection through the lymphatic system — part of the body’s immune system — or via sexual transmission.
These may include:
- increased urinary frequency
- blood in the urine
- difficulty urinating
- pain in the abdomen, lower back, and lower pelvis area
GUTB can affect the ureter and cause severe narrowing — strictures — that can lead to kidney damage due to obstruction. The ureter is the narrow tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
According to a
- medical history
- physical examination
- cultures to determine the presence of the bacterium
- blood tests
- imaging tests
The gold standard for diagnosis entails detecting M. tuberculosis in body samples, such as:
Options for treating GUTB include:
Medications are the
Following this, the treatment entails 4 months of rifampicin and isoniazid.
In instances involving complications of a blockage or narrowing of the ureters, either of
- stenting, which involves inserting a tube into the ureter
- percutaneous nephrostomy, which consists of creating an artificial opening between the kidney and the skin to allow urine to drain out
For a person with GUTB and kidney damage, renal transplantation may be an option for those who are receiving or have received antituberculosis therapy.
Is it curable?
With early detection and prompt standard medication treatment, the cure rate for GUTB is
A 2018 review notes that M. tuberculosis is usually eradicated within
The outlook is excellent with early detection and good adherence to drug treatment. However, relapses occur in
Genitourinary tuberculosis occurs when pulmonary tuberculosis travels through the bloodstream to one of the organs in the genitourinary tract.
Symptoms may include urinary frequency, blood in urine, difficulty urinating, and pain in the abdomen.
The gold standard of diagnosis involves detecting M. tuberculosis in samples, such as blood culture, urine, or a biopsy.
Treatment usually entails a 6-month course of various antituberculosis medications. Surgery is sometimes necessary. The cure rate is