Parafalcine meningioma is a slow-growing and benign tumor that develops between the two hemispheres of the brain.

Meningiomas are a type of primary brain tumor that forms on the meninges, the layers covering the brain and spinal cord. In the case of a parafalcine meningioma, the tumor grows between the brain’s two hemispheres.

Though most are benign (noncancerous), they can become life threatening as the tumor grows in size.

This article reviews parafalcine meningiomas, including possible causes, symptoms, and treatment.

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Parafalcine meningioma is a type of tumor that grows between the two hemispheres of the brain.

They can be buried deep between the cerebral hemispheres of the brain. This makes it challenging for a surgeon to access and remove.

Although many are benign, they can still cause serious harm. The tumors can compress the brain tissue, which can lead to neurological symptoms, such as weakness and vision changes.

They can also have life threatening effects, such as an inability to breathe independently. They are the third most deadly meningiomas, accounting for 11–14% of meningioma-related deaths.

Like other meningioma types, healthcare professionals use a grading system to help classify the tumors. The grades include:

  • Grade 1: The tumors are low-grade, which means they grow slowly. They also appear with nearly normal tumor cells.
  • Grade 2: Grade 2 tumors are atypical in appearance. They have a higher chance of recurrence after removal.
  • Grade 3: These tumors are anaplastic, or highly abnormal, and are cancerous tumors. They grow rapidly, and typically, surgeons cannot remove them.

Treatment often involves surgical removal when possible or therapies, such as radiation, to shrink the tumor.

The exact cause of parafalcine meningioma remains unknown.

Some possible risk factors of meningioma include:

  • Genetics: Neurofibromatosis type 2 is a genetic disorder that affects the central nervous system and may increase the risk of meningioma.
  • Ionizing radiation exposure: Dental X-rays are a common exposure for children.
  • Biological sex: People assigned female at birth have a higher incident rate.
  • Obesity: People with obesity may have an increased risk.

Cancerous forms may result from genetic changes and environmental factors. The only known environmental risk factor is exposure to radiation, typically as a child.

Parafalcine meningioma may begin slowly. The symptoms of any meningioma may also be nonspecific, meaning that several different underlying conditions may cause similar symptoms.

In one case study from 2021, doctors initially mistook parafalcine meningioma for a brain hemorrhage (bleed). This led to a delay in proper treatment. However, this type of mistaken diagnosis is rare.

A person may develop symptoms such as:

There are relatively limited treatment options for parafalcine meningioma. Tumor grade, size, and location can affect a doctor’s treatment options.

The most common treatment methods that doctors use include:

  • Observation: For smaller, slow-growing tumors, the doctor may decide to wait and see if the person develops symptoms. If symptoms start or worsen, doctors may suggest additional treatments.
  • Surgery: Surgical removal is one of the primary treatment methods for symptomatic tumors.
  • Radiation: If it is not possible to remove the tumor, a doctor may recommend radiation to help shrink the tumor. They may also suggest radiation in case of recurrence.

Less commonly, a doctor may recommend chemotherapy. They may consider this approach if it is not possible to remove the tumor or if it does not respond to radiation.

Future studies may find new or more effective treatment options. Current studies are attempting to find standard chemotherapy drugs to use, as well as immunotherapy options.

One 2019 study suggests that radiation therapy or chemotherapy for parafalcine meningioma could potentially be a more effective treatment option for some people.

The following sections provide answers to frequently asked questions about parafalcine meningiomas.

Is a Parafalcine meningioma benign?

In most cases, parafalcine meningiomas are benign. This means the tumor is not cancerous. However, it does not rule out all risks. Parafalcine is the third most deadly type of meningioma.

In some cases, even benign parafalcine meningioma can come back. Also, due to their location, surgical treatment can be challenging.

Can a Parafalcine meningioma cause dizziness?

Parafalcine meningioma can cause dizziness and other neurological symptoms. The symptoms often appear once the tumor grows in size.

Symptoms are typically nonspecific. This means that several different health conditions can cause them. Doctors will use imaging tests to determine if parafalcine meningioma is the underlying cause.

Parafalcine meningioma is a type of tumor that grows between the two hemispheres in the brain. The tumor is often benign and grows slowly. Symptoms will often start after the tumor grows ad compresses the brain tissue.

The exact cause is unknown. Risk factors can include radiation exposure, often from dental imaging, obesity, and biological sex.

Doctors individualize treatment according to a person’s needs. It can include watch and wait, surgery, or radiation. In rare cases, doctors may suggest chemotherapy.