Many people will experience a nagging cough at some point in their life, usually with little complication. However, a persistent cough can be a symptom of lung cancer.
This article looks at the link between coughing and lung cancer, when to contact a doctor, and what treatment options are available.
There are numerous reasons for a cough, and many of them are not serious and will resolve on their own.
However, while a cough does not typically mean that lung cancer is present, a persistent cough is a
How to tell if a cough is lung cancer
There is no way to diagnose lung cancer based on lung cancer symptoms alone, and certainly not based solely on the presence of a cough. A 2019 study of people with lung cancer found that the severity of the cough did not correlate with the severity of the disease.
However, some characteristics of a cough are linked to the risk of lung cancer,
- a persistent cough that does not go away, or that gets worse over time
- coughing up blood or brown or red mucous
- cough in a person with a history of smoking
- frequent respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
- cough associated with wheezing or shortness of breath
cough that produceslots of thin mucous
Conversely, normal coughs
- appear in response to an irritant, such as smoke or something in the throat
- occur as part of a short-term illness that goes away
- may or may not produce mucus, but do not normally produce large quantities of blood or dark mucous
A cough that sticks around for no apparent reason, or an illness that does not resolve, may warn of lung cancer.
Avoiding or quitting smoking can reduce the risk of many conditions that involve a cough, including lung cancer.
A persistent or worsening cough is not the only symptom of lung cancer. Other symptoms of this condition include:
- wheezing and difficulty breathing
- difficulty swallowing or speaking
- loss of appetite
- unexplained weight loss
- swelling in the face or neck
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is another serious condition that often affects people who smoke.
There are many reasons for a cough. For example, a short-term cough could be a
- an infection, such as a cold or pneumonia
- an allergy, such as hay fever
- inhaled dust, smoke, or debris
- irritation in the throat from food
- a dry throat from dehydration
The following can also lead to a persistent or chronic cough:
- a long-term respiratory infection, such as chronic bronchitis
- a long-term respiratory condition, such as asthma or COPD
dysphagia, a condition which affects swallowing that can cause choking sensations
- neurological disorders, such as dementia, which affect the coughing reflex
- bronchiectasis, which is a widening of the airways in the lungs
- postnasal drip, which occurs when mucus triggers a cough by dripping down the throat, usually due to a cold or an allergy
- gastroesophageal reflux disease, where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, or food pipe, causing irritation
- medications such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, which treat high blood pressure and heart disease
Most coughs will subside or disappear within
However, it is important to seek guidance from a doctor if a cough lasts for a long time or occurs alongside other symptoms, such as coughing up blood.
The doctor can determine the cause of the cough and provide appropriate treatment if necessary.
Not everyone with lung cancer will have a cough. For instance, Pancoast tumors develop at the top of the lung and do not cause a cough.
When assessing a person with a persistent cough, doctors may first ask about:
- family and personal medical history
- how long the cough has lasted
- what type of cough it is
- when it is most likely to occur
- any other symptoms
Depending on the findings, the doctor may order additional tests,
- Imaging tests: These include a chest X-ray, a CT scan, and an MRI scan.
- Blood tests: Doctors will often take a complete blood count and assess other cancer markers in the blood.
- Sputum test: The person may have to provide sputum samples.
- Biopsy: Medical professionals may take tissue samples by inserting a needle into accessible tumors.
- Bronchoscopy: In this test, a healthcare professional inserts a small tube down the nose and into the lungs. The same tool can take a small sample of tissue for analysis.
A specialist called a pathologist will look at any cell samples under the microscope to see whether cancer is present and, if so, what type of cancer it is.
Sometimes, a doctor may also suggest genetic testing.
Genetic features can vary between cancer types. Some newer drugs target specific features that encourage cancer to grow. Knowing what features are present may enable a doctor to suggest a genetic treatment targeting that type of cancer more effectively than conventional treatments.
If a person receives a lung cancer diagnosis, the doctor will talk with them about a treatment plan.
These plans vary from person to person. The doctor will consider the type of cancer and the person’s age and overall health, among other factors.
- Surgery: If the cancer is limited, a surgeon can remove part of the lung. They may also remove nearby lymph nodes.
- Radiation therapy: A machine targets the malignant cells with a beam. This can kill cancer cells to either shrink a tumor before surgery or remove any remaining cells after surgery.
- Chemotherapy: This can kill cancer cells, but it can also have severe adverse effects on healthy cells.
- Targeted therapy: These drugs target specific genes, proteins, and other factors that contribute to cancer development. They aim to stop or delay cancer growth.
Some lifestyle changes may also help improve the outlook, even after a diagnosis. These include:
If the cancer has spread significantly, it may no longer be possible to remove or cure it. The doctor may recommend palliative care, including radiation therapy, to prevent further complications and treat any symptoms.
Management and self-care strategies
Living with lung cancer, regardless of the type of cancer, can be difficult. These strategies may help:
- Embrace a healthy lifestyle that includes moderate exercise, healthy eating, and stress management. This may help a person feel better and reduce the risk of additional symptoms.
- Discuss the risks and benefits of treatment with a doctor. Some treatments prolong life but do not cure cancer and may make a person feel very sick.
- Ask a doctor about medications for fatigue.
Many people with lung cancerstruggle with fatigue and may not find relief from self-care strategies alone.
- Talk to loved ones about final wishes and end-of-life care preferences. For example, would a person prefer aggressive treatment that means they die in a hospital, or palliative care and hospice?
- Ask a doctor about life expectancy, so a person can plan and get their affairs in order.
- Consider joining a support group for practical wisdom from other people living with cancer.
- Tell loved ones what would be most helpful. Friends and family may want to offer support, but may be unsure what to do.
- Talk to a doctor about symptoms, including side effects of cancer treatment. Often, medications or lifestyle changes can reduce the severity of these symptoms.
- Speak with a therapist who specializes in serious and terminal illnesses. Talking through emotions, weighing options, and nonjudgmental support can make living with cancer feel less overwhelming.
The outlook for lung cancer depends on various factors, such as the:
- person’s age and overall health
- stage of the cancer at diagnosis
- type of cancer
Early stage cancer is easier to treat and likelier to have a positive outcome than later stage cancer.
For people with non-small-cell lung cancer, the chance of living for at least
- 63% when the cancer is localized, which means that it is still in the original location
- 35% if it is regional, having spread to nearby tissues
- 7% if it has spread to more distant parts of the body
- 25% overall
For small-cell lung cancer, the average 5-year survival rates are:
- 27% for localized cancer
- 16% if it has spread to nearby lymph nodes
- 3% if it has reached distant parts of the body
- 7% overall
Anyone with a persistent cough that occurs alongside chest pain, shortness of breath, or bloody spit should consult a doctor. If lung cancer is present, the outlook will be better if a person seeks help immediately. This means the cancer will have less time to spread.
Lung cancer can develop without an apparent cause. However, exposure to certain substances and some lifestyle habits
People can reduce their risk of developing lung cancer by avoiding other carcinogens, such as asbestos. Carcinogens are chemicals that can make cells more likely to become cancerous.
Most coughs happen because of minor infections or irritants and resolve on their own within a few weeks.
While having a cough does not always mean a person has lung cancer, a persistent cough is a common symptom of the condition. It may also signal other serious conditions, such as a persistent infection or COPD.
If a person experiences a persistent cough alongside other lung cancer symptoms, such as blood in the spit and chest pain, they should contact a doctor immediately. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve the outlook for people with lung cancer.
There are also a number of ways in which people can reduce their likelihood of developing lung cancer. These include quitting smoking, avoiding exposure to other carcinogens, and exercising regularly.