A prostate cancer prognosis depends on how early a doctor diagnoses the cancer. With an early diagnosis, the prognosis is excellent. The advanced disease has a much worse prognosis.
Prostate cancer attacks the prostate, a small gland located between the base of the penis and the bladder. Prostate cancers tend to grow slowly, but they can spread. When these tumors spread, the cancer can be fatal or affect overall health.
This article explains the prognosis, stages, causes, treatment of prostate cancer, and whether it is preventable.
A note about sex and gender
Sex and gender exist on spectrums. This article will use the terms “male,” “female,” or both to refer to sex assigned at birth. Click here to learn more.
According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), the overall 5-year survival rate for all stages is
According to the
The outlook for people with prostate cancer is good when they receive an early diagnosis.
According to the
- Localized cancer: Greater than 99%.
- Regional cancer: Greater than 99%.
- Distant or metastatic cancer: 32%.
The overall 5-year survival rate is 97%.
Radiation to the prostate may cause side effects such as:
- difficult or painful urination
- urinary leakage or urgency to urinate
- blood in urine
- rectal bleeding
What is prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer is cancer
Prostate cancer occurs when cells in the prostate grow out of control, forming a tumor. Over time, the cancer can spread to nearby locations and other body regions. This is metastatic prostate cancer.
Several different staging systems exist, including the three-stage tumor model. This model assesses the size of the tumor using the
One of the
- Localized: This means prostate cancer exists only where it is found, with no spreading. Risk groups for recurrence can be very low, low, intermediate, high, or very high.
- Regional: This means the cancer is possibly in nearby structures, the lymph nodes, or both.
- Metastatic: This means the cancer has spread into distant lymph nodes or bones.
- blood in the urine
- painful urination
- trouble urinating
- frequently urinating at night
- difficulty maintaining a consistent urine stream
Age is the most significant prostate cancer risk factor, with about
Other risk factors include:
The most common treatments for prostate cancer that has not spread
- Observation: If the cancer is slow-growing and low risk, a doctor may recommend delaying treatment and instead continuing to test for signs that the cancer has spread.
- Prostatectomy: Prostatectomy is surgery to remove the prostate and the cancer.
- Radiation: This is a treatment to kill cancer cells, often along with surgery.
Other less common or experimental treatments
- cryotherapy to freeze the cancer, if it has not spread
- chemotherapy to treat metastasized cancer that is resistant to hormonal treatment
- hormonal therapy to stop testosterone from reaching the cancer cells.
- biological therapy to help the body fight the cancer
Correct treatment depends on a person’s age, overall health, treatment goals, and cancer stage.
It is not possible to prevent all cases of prostate cancer. An active lifestyle, avoiding harmful chemicals, and managing conditions such as hypertension
Doctors may prescribe the drugs finasteride and dutasteride to people who have a high risk of developing prostate cancer. These medications may reduce the risk of cancer but not the risk of dying of cancer. These drugs can also cause side effects such as ED.
A person should discuss their risk factors with a doctor.
Learn about some natural ways to try to prevent prostate cancer.
Most people survive prostate cancer with minimal complications. If the cancer is localized and grows slowly, many people do not immediately need treatment. But prostate cancer can still be fatal.
People with cancer can work with an oncologist to discuss treatment and outlook, and all males should consider asking a doctor about their prostate cancer risk.
Anyone concerned about prostate cancer might consider talking with a doctor.
Visit our dedicated hub for more research-backed information and in-depth resources on prostate cancer.