A rash can develop around the eyes for different reasons, including dermatological conditions and infections. Examples include atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and cellulitis.
Doctors may find it difficult to diagnose skin problems around the eyes because many conditions may cause a rash. To diagnose a rash around the eyes, doctors require a detailed examination of the affected area and complete medical history.
Keep reading to learn more about the causes, symptoms, and treatment of a rash around the eyes.
Eczema is a chronic skin condition. Doctors have identified several different types of eczema, one example being atopic dermatitis (AD).
AD is a skin condition that usually appears in childhood and can develop on any area of the body, including the face and around the eyes.
The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) state that researchers have identified the following factors that may play a role in causing AD:
- family history of AD, food allergies, hay fever, or asthma
- immune system
- where a person lives
- chronic exposure to tobacco smoke, pollutants, and stress
People with AD may have an itchy rash. The AAD state that typically a person may first experience itchy skin. When a person scratches, a rash begins to appear.
The appearance of AD can vary depending on how old the person is:
In infants, the rash typically appears on the cheeks, scalp, and face. The skin may become dry or scaly. Sometimes, the rash may form blisters and then ooze and weep fluid.
Children may develop AD in the elbow and feet creases. Other locations include:
- crease between buttocks and legs
Some accompanying symptoms in children may include:
- bumpy-looking skin
- darkened or lightened skin around the area of the rash
- thickened or leathery skin
Approximately 2–3% of adults experience AD.
If it persists into adulthood, people may have fewer rashes. However, they tend to have:
- extremely dry skin
- skin that is easily irritated
- hand eczema
- eczema on the eyelids
Adults with AD around the eyes may have darker, thickened skin circling the eyes, which may be very itchy.
A person can make changes to their skin care routine and use certain medications to help treat AD.
Contact dermatitis is another type of eczema. There are two types of contact dermatitis:
Allergic contact dermatitis
Allergic contact dermatitis occurs when a person comes into contact with an allergen, such as:
- poison ivy
Irritant contact dermatitis
Irritant contact dermatitis occurs when a person comes into contact with something that damages the skin, such as:
- hair dye
Symptoms of irritant contact dermatitis include dry and chapped skin. If the exposure to the irritant continues, a person may notice inflamed, scaly, and swollen patches of skin.
Treatment for either type of contact dermatitis may include antihistamines, moisturizers, and topical corticosteroid creams.
Seborrheic blepharitis typically occurs due to an overgrowth called Malassezia, which is a type of harmless yeast. It can also occur due to an overreaction of the skin’s immune system to the yeast.
A person may notice that their eyelids have become inflamed, crusty, and flaky.
In people with darker skin, the affected area may appear lighter or darker than the surrounding skin.
Other symptoms include:
- irritated eyes
- oversensitivity to light
- gritty sensation in the eyes
- itchy eyelids
Treatment will involve using warm compresses, eyelid massages, and eyelid scrubs.
A person should apply a warm compress two to four times per day for 5–10 minutes.
An eyelid scrub will consist of gently rubbing the eyelids with a wet washcloth and detergent, such as a baby shampoo.
A healthcare professional may also prescribe topical corticosteroid drops, which generally are safe to use short term. However, long-term use may potentially lead to adverse effects.
Antibiotics may also be an option.
Psoriasis is a chronic condition that can last throughout a person’s life.
The condition occurs when the body produces skin cells too quickly. This causes skin cells to accumulate and form patches or spots on the skin, which doctors call plaques.
People with plaque psoriasis may notice:
- patches of thick, raised skin or plaques of different sizes
- scales, which are dry, thin, and silvery-white, covering some of the plaques
- smaller plaques joining to form bigger plaques
The plaques can appear anywhere on the body, including the skin around the eyes, but the most common locations include:
- lower back
Psoriasis may have a genetic component since it runs in families. Researchers are still trying to determine exactly how psoriasis develops. The immune system and genes seem to play a role.
People with psoriasis may experience flare-ups when they come into contact with certain triggers, like eczema. Some common triggers include:
- injury to the skin, such as a cut or sunburn
- infection, such as strep throat
- medications, such as lithium, prednisone, and hydroxychloroquine
- weather changes, especially cold and dry weather
- heavy alcohol consumption
People living with psoriasis should speak with a doctor to find the most appropriate treatment.
Treatment options typically involve topical, oral, and injected medications.
Sometimes, doctors will need to combine different treatments, and systemic medications are rarely used without a topical prescription medication. Doctors may also prescribe biological medications combined with a topical prescription product.
- pain when moving the eye
- limited eye movement
- inflamed, swollen eyelid
- discharge from the eye
- difficulty opening the eye
- loss of appetite
Anyone suspecting that they have a bacterial skin infection such as cellulitis should seek medical attention immediately.
Typical treatment options are antibiotics and surgery.
The type of antibiotic a person may need for cellulitis depends on the type of bacterium that caused the infection.
While some people may receive oral antibiotics, others may require intravenous antibiotics.
Anyone who develops a rash around the eyes should speak with a doctor to determine its cause and possible treatment.
Other conditions that may cause a rash around the eyes include an allergic reaction, which may require immediate medical attention. Anyone who develops a rash around the eyes and is having trouble with vision must seek emergency medical attention.
Many conditions may cause a rash around the eyes. Among them are infections, such as orbital cellulitis, and dermatological conditions, such as allergic, irritant, and contact dermatitis.
People who experience a rash around the eyes should speak with a doctor to determine its cause.
With a proper diagnosis, doctors can treat rashes around the eyes. While some conditions are chronic or lifelong, doctors can prescribe medications and design care plans to manage the appearance of a rash around the eyes.